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Although they are "self-feeders," autotrophs are not totally self-sufficient. What do they require from the environment in order to synthesize sugar?
Light, carbon dioxide, and water
an organism that makes its own food, self-feeder
organism that uses energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water to carbon compounds
Chloroplast is to ____________ as ____________ is to cellular respiration.
photosynthesis . . . mitochondrion
stack of thylakoids connected in a chloroplast; where light energy is trapped by chlorophyll & converted to chemical energy during the light reactions
flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy
a chemical reaction that happens in photoautotrophs that uses sun energy to make sugar from CO2 and water
cellular respiration define
oxidation of food to make ATP
cellular resp. formula redox
glucose oxidized to CO2, 6 O2 to 6 H2o
photosynthesis formula redox
6 CO2 reduced= glucose, 6 H2O oxidized=6 O2
loosely arranged photosynthetic cell located between the bundle sheath and the leaf surface, contains chloro & mitoch
What step in cellular respiration reverses the watersplitting step of photosynthesis?
The formation of water when electrons and hydrogen ions are added to oxygen at the "bottom" of the electron transport chain
Which redox process, photosynthesis or cellular respiration, is endergonic?
For chloroplasts to produce sugar from carbon dioxide in the dark, they would require an artificial supply of ________ and ________.`
ATP . . . NADPH
organelle in which photosynthesis occurs
What color of light is least effective in driving photosynthesis?
ompared to a solution of isolated chlorophyll, why do intact chloroplasts release less heat and fluorescence when illuminated?
In the chloroplasts, the light-excited electrons are trapped by a primary electron acceptor rather than immediately giving up all their energy as heat and light.
in light reactions there is a flow of electrons from _________ molecules to __________, which is reduced to __________, the source of electrons for sugar synthesis in the _________ cycle.
water . . . NADP+ . . . NADPH . . . Calvin
What is the advantage of the light reactions producing NADPH and ATP on the stroma side of the thylakoid membrane?
The Calvin cycle, which consumes the NADPH and ATP, occurs in the stroma.
To synthesize one glucose molecule, the Calvin cycle must turn six times. In doing so, it uses ____ molecules of CO2, ____ molecules of ATP, and ____ molecules of NADPH.
6 . . . 18 . . . 12
Explain why a poison that inhibits an enzyme of the Calvin cycle will also inhibit the light reactions.
The light reactions require ADP and NADP+, which are not recycled from ATP and NADPH when the Calvin cycle stops.
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water, where calvin cycle takes place
stoma pl. stomata and what goes in & out
pores where gases come and go; CO2 comes in, O2 and H2O vapor come out
plant in the dark does
green tissue in interior of leaf
light reactions react and prod and where
react: light, H2O, [NADP+,and ADP+P] --> Prod: NADPH, ATP, O2; happens in thylakoid membranes
why does photosynthesis produce O2?
because when H2O is split,
what makes leaves green?
how is high pH (low H+) made in thylakoid space?
H2O is split inside compartment releasing H+, ETC uses energy of electrons to actively transport H+ into thylakoid space, NADPH keeps going back to stroma ATP synthase
calvin cycle what and where
how do plants store energy?
calvin cycle react & prod and where
React: CO2, ATP, NADPH, RuBP from previous cycle Prod:
light reactions storyline
1. pigment molecule absorbs, energy is passed to others until it reaches reaction center in photosystem II, excites 1 electron of chlorophyll; 2. electron is captured by primary electron acceptor 3. water is split, water's electrons are given 1 by 1 to chlorophyll to make up 4 loss to primary electron acceptor, 2 oxygens combine to make O2; 4. light-excited electrons go thru electron transport chain from photosys. 1 to photosys. 2, is endergonic and provides energy 4 making ATP; 5. light excites chlorophyll electron in photosys 1, primary electron acceptor takes electron; 6. excited electron goes thru short electron transport to NADP+ which goes to NADPH
calvin cycle overall story
1. CO2 attached to RuBP by rubisco 2. 6 ATP-6 ADP+P, 6 NADPH-6 NADP+ make 6 G3P; 3. 5 G3Ps stay in cycle, one is released; 4. RuBP is made while ATP becomes ADP+P
where do sugars from calvin cycle go?
cellular respiration to supply energy, energy storage to starch, growth create all biological molecules & new cells, mostly cellulose
high energy electrons made in photosynthesis go into...
if plant has no CO 2 what happens?
plant would be able to perform cell resp for a short time w/ stored up starch, which could restart photosynth and cell. resp. for a short time, but would eventually die
the process by which CO2 is put into biological molecules.
why can't plant do photosynth in dark?
light reactions need light, and calvin cycle needs products of light reactions, which will not last long w/ o light reactions.
photosynthesis full equation
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light-->glucose and 6 O2
photosynthesis summarize 2 parts & reactions
light reactions use light, make H2O into O2, make NADP+ into NADPH, makes ADP+P into ATP; calvin cycle makes CO2 (& RuBP) into glucose, oxidizes ATP NADPH
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