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43 terms

The Nervous System - Lecture 1

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What two systems make up the Nervous System?
The Central Nervous System and The Peripheral System
What two body parts make up the The Central Nervous System?
The Brain and the Spinal Cord
What two body parts and one system make up the The Peripheral System?
Cranial & Spinal Nerves, Visceral Afferent, Automatic Nervous System
What two nerves make up the Automatic Nervous System?
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
The organization of the Nervous System is...
within the body.
Inside is you brain and you spinal cord but outside is your...
peripheral nervous system
How many nerves are there is the peripheral nervous system?
12 cranial nerves and the spinal column
What is the basic nervous system made up of?
Neurons
What is a neuron?
The most basic functional unit and are the small part of the nervous system.
What is the main bulk of the neuron?
The Cell body
What are Dendrites?
Little extensions off the cell body.
What is the longer extension off the neuron called?
the axon
What is the axon wrapped up in?
Myelin
What is in between the gaps of myelin?
Nodes of ranvier
Where are the axon terminals?
At the very end of the axon
What are the two groups of neurons called in the Nervous System called?
Somatic Neurons and Autonomic Neurons
Somatic Neurons are _________ in the environment.
observable
What kind of activities are the Somatic Neurons involved in?
Voluntary
What is an example of a voluntary activity?
your arms moves because you tell it to
What kind of activities are the Autonomic Neurons involved in?
involuntary
What are examples of involuntary activities?
process that occurs in the viscera or the blood vessels, the glands, all the unconscious activities
What are the three different ways a neurons can travel?
efferent, afferent, both(meaning a mix of afferent and efferent)
Efferent
conduct impulses away from the cell body or from the central nervous system; think eeeeehh! I'm scared and I'm running away!
Afferent
conduct impulses toward the neuron cell body or toward the central nervous system; think "I want Affection, so I coming to you!"
What are the dendrites? Afferent or Efferent
afferent
The dendrites help move the info. _________ the central nervous system.
towards
What are the axons? Afferent or Efferent
efferent
The axons help move the info ___________ from the central nervous system.
away
What is the myelin's purpose?
lines nerves fibers to protect and insulate; helps transmission of electrical current carrying data from on nerve cell to the next so it can speed it up.
What is the Nodes of Ranvier's Purpose?
junctions where the nerve process is exposed, increase velocity of nerve impulses
What is the Myelin like on a first born baby?
the myelin has not completely covered the axon
What happens to the myeline on the axon as a child learns a skill.
the myelin will form to help them accomplish that skill faster and faster so the nerve with learn how to accomplish that task
Most Myelations of the nerve fibers won't occur until...
late childhood
What happens to the myeline if a person gets Multiple Sclerosis?
The myelin gets damaged and depending on where the damage is, a person will have certain problems and lose the speed different skills
What are Synapes?
the space between neurons in a chain, neurons will start linking together to form chains
What happens as neurons start linking together?
an axon will come down to form synaptic knob
What is inside a synaptic knob?
there is a bunch of synaptic vesicles and mitochondria
What is a synaptic cleft?
the gap in between the neurons as they start linking together
What happens as the synaptic cleft hooks onto the next neuron?
it will send forth vesicles releasing neurotransmitters to continue sending message from one nerve to next nerve
What happens when all the nerves have connected together?
a group of bundle of axons and/or dendrites from numerous neurons form nerves
What are Sensory Nerves?
afferent, moving toward the central nervous system
What are Motor Nerves?
efferent, they're taking info. from central nervous system
What are Mixed Nerves?
have both afferent and efferent purposes