AP Biology Protein Synthesis
Terms in this set (38)
Process that converts DNA Nucleic Acid language into RNA Nucleic Acid language.
• Ribose sugar.
• Nitrogen bases: Uracil, Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine.
• Single stranded.
Types of RNA
Transcribed DNA strand; the strand of DNA that is temporarily paired with the RNA.
Untranscribed DNA strand; same sequence as RNA.
Where DNA unzips for transcription to begin.
RNA Polymerase I
Only transcribes rRNA genes; makes ribosomes.
RNA Polymerase II
Transcribes genes into mRNA.
RNA Polymerase III
Only transcribes tRNA genes.
Binding site before beginning of gene; for RNA Polymerase and transcription factors.
Binding site far upstream of gene. Turns transcription on HIGH.
Transcription factors bind to promoter region. Trigger the binding of RNA Polymerase to DNA.
The real gene; expressed/coding DNA.
The junk genetic material; INbetween sequence.
Post-transcriptional processing; edits out introns.
Primary transcript of the process.
The final product of mRNA splicing.
Small nuclear RNA; proteins. Responsible for splicing RNA.
Several snRNPs. Recognize splice site sequence. "Cut and paste" gene.
Alternative mRNAs produced from same gene; different segments treated as exons.
Need to protect mRNA on its trip from nucleus to cytoplasm; enzymes in cytoplasm attack mRNA.
5' GTP Cap and Poly-A Tail; longer tail, mRNA lasts longer: produces more protein.
Reading mRNA nucleotides in the correct groupings. If a single base is added or lost, it throws off the entire reading frame.
From nucleic acid language to amino acid language.
A sequence of three nucleotides in mRNA that codes for a specific amino acid.
AUG and Methionine.
UGA, UAA, and UAG.
Group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon.
Transfer RNA: follows its complementary codon, carries a specific attached amino acid.
Facilitate coupling of tRNA anticodon to mRNA codon. Organelle/enzyme hybrid.
Structure of Ribosomes
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and proteins. Large and small subunits.
Holds tRNA carrying next amino acid to be added to chain.
Holds tRNA carrying growing polypeptide chain.
Exit site. Empty tRNA leaves ribosome from exit side.
Brings together mRNA, ribosome subunits, initiator tRNA.
Adding amino acids based on codon sequence.
Protein Synthesis in Prokaryotes
Translation and transcription coupled, translation begins before transcription is completed.