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Anatomy Final: Chapter 13
Terms in this set (80)
the ventricles of the brain are continuous with one another as well as with the central canal of the spinal cord.
There are________ ventricles inn the brain and _______ of them are lateral ventricles.
The lateral ventricles communicate with the ___ ventricle through an opening call the ________.
third, interventricular foramen
The _________ connects the third ventricle with the fourth ventricle.
All ventricles contain a liquid material called ____.
_______ bathes the exposed surfaces of the central nervous system.
The _____ is the location of conscious thought processes and the origin of all complex intellectual functions.
- anterior part of cerebral hemispheres
- motor functions (including speech)
- verbal communication
- decision making
- Central Sulcus
- Lateral Sulcus
- Parieto-occipital Sulcus
- splits frontal and parietal lobes
- splits frontal and parietal lobes from temporal lobe
- splits parietal and occipital lobes
- Precentral Gyrus
- Postcentral Gyrus
- important feature of frontal lobe the mass of nervous tissue immediately anterior to the central sulcus
- important feature of parietal lobe; posterior to central sulcus
- forms the superoposterior part of each cerebral hemisphere
- general sensory functions
- evaluating the shape and texture of objects being touched
- sensory input regarding body position from proprioceptors w/in our joints and muscles
- inferior to lateral sulcus
- hearing and smell
- posterior region of each cerebral hemisphere
- processes incoming visual info and storing visual memories
- small lobe deep to lateral sulcus
- memory and the interpretation of taste
Primary Motor Cortex (Somatic motor area)
- located w/in precentral gyrus of frontal lobe
- neurons control voluntary muscle activity
- left controls right side muscles
- right controls left side muscles
Motor Speech Area (Broca's Area)
- located w/in the inferolateral portion of the left frontal lobe
- regulates breathing and controlling the muscular movements necessary for vocalization
Somatosensory Association Area
- located w/in parietal lobe
- integrates sensory info and interprets sensations to determine texture, temp, pressure and shape of objects
Primary Visual Cortex
- located w/in occipital lobe
- receives and processes/ interprets incoming visual info
Visual Association Area
- located w/in occipital lobe and surrounds primary visual cortex
- enables us to process visual info by analyzing color, movement and form
Primary Auditory Cortex
- located w/in temporal lobe and receives and processes auditory info
Auditory Association Area
- located w/in temporal lobe and posteroinferior to the primary auditory cortex
- cortical neurons interpret the characteristics of sound and store memories of sounds heard in the past
Primary Olfactory Cortex
-located within temporal lobe
-provides conscious awareness of smells
Primary Gustatory Cortex
w/in the insula and is involves in processing taste information
Central White Matter
- lies deep to the grey matter
- composed primarily of myelinated axons bundled into groups called tracts
- shape asymmetries of the frontal and occipital lobes of the brain
specializes each cerebral hemisphere for certain tasks/ functions
Left Cerebral Hemisphere
- verbal memory
- speech motor area
- right hand motor control
- superior language and mathematic comprehension
- right visual field
Right Cerebral Hemisphere
- memory for shapes
- corpus callosum (center)
- left hand motor control
- musical ability
- recognition of faces and spatial relationships
- left visual field
Categorical Cerebral Hemisphere
- left hemisphere in most people
- contains Wernicke's area and the motor speech area
- specialized for language abilities and performing sequential and analytical reasoning tasks (math and science)
- direct/ partition info into smaller fragments for analysis
The three categories of functional areas in the cerebral cortex are...
- motor area
- sensory area
- association area
- sandwiched between the inferior regions of the cerebral hemispheres "in-between brain"
- epithalamus, thalamus and hypothalamus
- 3rd ventricle is associated
- partially forms the posterior roof of the diencephalon and covers the third ventricle
- houses the pineal gland and habenular nuclei
- an endocrine gland that secretes melatonin to help regulate day-night cycles (circadian rhythm)
- forms superolateral walls of 3rd ventricle
- paired oval masses of gray matter lie on either side of 3rd ventricle
- the principal and final relay point for incoming sensory info that is processed and then projected to the appropriate lobe
- only a small portion of info that arrives is passed to lobes
A small, midline mass of gray matter that connects the right and left thalamic bodies
- each part of the thalamus has about a dozen
- axons from these nuclei project to regions of the cerebral cortex
- anteroinferior region of diencephalon
- thin, infundibulum extends from hypo to attach to the pituitary gland
The thalamus will process incoming information and project it to the ___________.
sensory cortices of the cerebrum
There is a _____________ that prevents harmful materials from the brain.
blood brain barrier
The protective membranes that surround, stabilize, and partition parts of the brain are called the _________.
The arachnoid mater contains ____ and _____ fibers.
Between the arachnoid and pia mater is the _________.
The falx cerebri is a fold of _____.
The _________ divides the left and right cerebellar hemispheres.
Substances that can pass through the blood-brain barrier
- some anesthetics
The _________ forms a dural "tent" over the cerebellum
Cells called _____ act as "gatekeepers" that permit materials to pass to the neurons of the brain from the capillaries.
In the brain, the _____ matter lies deep to the ____ matter of the cortex.
The _______ matter houses cell bodies, dendrites and unmyelinated axons.
The largest of the white matter tracts that connect the cerebral hemispheres is the ____.
Most of the sensory info the cerebral hemispheres receive and send ____________.
are from the opposite side of the body
The _____ is located w/in the temporal lobe and interprets the characteristics of sound and stores memories of sounds heard in the past.
auditory association area
The posterior portion of the epithalamus is the location for the _____.
The _____ is responsible for filtering out the sounds and sights in a busy coffee shop when you're trying to study.
The external layer of gray matter is called the ______.
The _________ is located on the precentral gyrus.
the primary ______ cortex is housed w/in the postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobes.
The Wernicke area works together with the _____ in order for fluent communication to occur.
motor speech area
When you get a song stuck in your head, it is the ____ that is responsible.
auditory association area
- connects the cerebrum, diencephalon and cerebellum to the spinal cord
- includes midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata
- contains autonomic centers and reflex centers required for regulating body functions necessary for survival
- superior portion of the brainstem
- also called the mesencephalon
Cerebral Peduncles (midbrain)
- motor tracts located on the anterolateral surface
- relay voluntary motor commands from the primary motor cortex of each hemisphere
Superior Cerebellar Peduncles
- connect the midbrain to the cerebellum
- bands of myelinated sensory axons
- extends from MO through pons and midbrain to the thalamus
- consists of bilaterally symmetric nuclei w/in midbrain
- black due to melanin pigmentation
connects the third and fourth ventricles
- superior nuclei (visual reflex centers)
- help visually track moving objects and control reflexes such as turning the eyes and head in response to a visual stimulus
- auditory reflex centers
- control reflexive turning of the head and eyes in the direction of a sound
- sensory and motor tracts are w/in and extend through it to connect to the brain and spinal cord
Middle Cerebellar Peduncles
transverse axons that connect the pons to the cerebellum
Pontine Respiratory Center (pons)
- w/in pons and houses autonomic nuclei
- visual center that regulates the skeletal muscles of breathing w/ the MO medullary respiratory center
- primary function is to regulate a smooth transition between breathing in and out
Superior Olivary Nuclei (pons)
- inferior portion of pons
- each nucleus receives auditory input and is involved in the pathway for sound localization
Cranial Nerve Nuclei (pons)
sensory and motor nerve for the trigeminal, abducens, facial and vestibulocochlear cranial nerves
- most inferior part of brainstem and has flattened, round shape and narrow central canal
- houses tracts that involve all communication between the brain and spinal cord
- contains several autonomic nuclei that group together to form centers that regulate functions vital for life
- 2 longitudinal ridges on the anterior surface of MO
- house the motor projection tracts (corticospinal tracts) that extend through the MO
the point where most axons of the pyramidal tracts cross to the opposite side of the brain
Decussation of the Pyramids (MO)
- immediately later to each pyramid
- a distinct bulb containing the inferior olivary nucleus
- large fold of gray matter
- relay ascending sensory nerve signals, especially proprioceptive info, to the cerebellum
Inferior Olivary Nucleus (MO)
tracts that connect the medulla oblongata to the cerebellum
Inferior Cerebellar Peduncles (paired)
relay somatic sensory info to the thalamus
Nucleus Cuneatus and Nucleus Gracilis (MO)
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