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Milady Esthetics Chapter 11: disorders and diseases of the skin
Terms in this set (82)
Chronic inflammatory skin disorder of the sebaceous glads that is characterized by comedones and blemishes; commonly known as acne simplex or acne vulgaris.
Disorder where clients purposely scrape off acne lesions, causing scarring and discoloration.
Pink or flesh-colored precancerous lesions that feel sharp or rough; resulting from sun damage.
Absence of melanin pigment in the body, including skin, hair, and eyes; the technical term for congenital leukoderma or congenital hypopigmentation.
Deficiency in perspiration, often a result of fever or skin disease, that requires medical treatment.
Dry, scaly skin from sebum deficiency, which can be due aging, body disorders, alkalies of harsh soaps, cold exposure.
Excess inflammation; dry skin, redness, and itching from allergies and irritants.
basal cell carcinoma
Most common and the least severe type of skin cancer, which often appears as light, pearly nodules; characteristics include sores, reddish patches, or a smooth growth with elevated border.
Foul-smelling perspiration, usually in the armpits or on the feet.
bulla (plural: bullae)
Large blister containing watery fluid; similar to a vesicle, but larger
Cluster of boils; large inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue caused by staphylococci bacterium; similar to a furuncle boil but larger.
Also known as liver spots; condition characterized by hyperpigmentation on the skin in spots that are not elevated.
comedo (plural: comedones)
Mass of hardened sebum and skin cells in a hair follicle; an open comedo or blackhead when open and exposed to oxygen. Closed comedones are whiteheads that are blocked and do not have a follicular opening.
Tendency for an ingredient to clog follicles and cause a buildup of dead skin cells, resulting in comedones.
Also known as pinkeye; very contagious infection of the mucous membranes around the eye; chemical, bacterial, or viral causes.
Inflammatory skin condition caused by contact with a substance or chemical. Occupational disorders from ingredients in cosmetics and chemical solutions can cause contact dermatitis (a.k.a. dermatitis venenata). Allergic contact dermatitis is from exposure to allergens; irritant contact dermatitis is from exposure to irritants.
Dead cells form over a wound or blemish while it is healing, resulting in an accumulation of sebum and pus, sometimes mixed with epidermal material. An example is the scab on a sore
Closed, abnormally developed sac containing fluid, infection, or other matter above or below the skin.
Any inflammatory condition of the skin; various forms of lesions such as eczema, vesicles, or papules; the three main categories are atopic, contact, and seborrheic dermatitis.
Physician who specializes in diseases and disorders of the skin, hair, and nails.
Inflammatory, painful itching disease of the skin, acute or chronic in nature, with dry or moist lesions. This condition should be referred a physician. Seborrheic dermatitis, mainly affecting oily areas, is a common form of eczema.
Swelling caused by a fluid imbalance in cells or a response to injury or infection.
Redness caused by inflammation; a red lesion is erythemic
Skin sore or abrasion produced by scratching or scraping.
Crack in the skin that penetrates the dermis. Chapped lips or hands are fissures.
Also known as folliculitis barbae, sycosis barbae, or barber's itch. Inflammation of the hair follicles caused by a bacterial infection from ingrown hairs due to shaving or other epilation methods.
Also known as boil; a subcutaneous abscess filled with pus; furuncles are caused by bacteria in the glands or hair folicles.
herpes simplex virus 1
Strain of the herpes virus that causes fever blisters or cold sores; it is a recurring contagious viral infection consisting of a vesicle or group of vesicles on a red, swollen base. The blisters usually appear on the lips or nostrils.
herpes simplex virus 2
Strain of the herpes virus that infects the genitals.
Also known as shingles; a painful viral infection skin condition from the chickenpox virus; characterized by groups of blisters that form a rash in a ring or line.
Excessive perspiration caused by heat, genetics, medications, or medical conditions; also called diaphoresis.
Thickening of the skin caused by a mass of keratinized cells (keratinocytes)
Over-production of pigment.
Abnormal growth of the skin; many are benign, or harmless.
Absence of pigment, resulting in light or white splotches.
A contagious skin infection caused by staphylococcal or streptococcal bacteria, characterized by clusters of small blisters or crusty lesions and often occurring in children.
Thick scar resulting from excessive growth of fibrous tissue (collagen)
Acquired, superficial, thickened patch of epidermis. A callus is a keratoma caused by continued, repeated pressure or friction on any part of the skin, especially the hands and feet.
keratosis (plural: keratoses)
Abnormally thick buildup of cells.
Redness and bumpiness common on the cheeks or upper arms; it is caused by blocked hair follicles. The patches of irritation are accompanied by a rough texture and small pinpoint white milia.
Freckles; small yellow-brown colored spots. Lentigenes that result from sunlight exposure are actinic, or solar, lentigenes. Patches are referred to as large macules.
Mark, wound, or abnormality; structural changes in tissues caused by damage or injury
Skin disorder characterized by light, abnormal patches; congenital, acquired, post- inflammatory, or other causes that destroy pigment-producing cells. Vitiligo and albinism are leukodermas.
macule (plural: maculae)
Flat spot or discoloration on the skin, such as a freckle. Macules are neither raised nor sunken.
Most serious form of skin cancer as it can spread quickly (metastasize). Black or dark patches on the skin are usually uneven in texture, jagged, or raised. Melanomas may have surface crust or bleed.
Epidermal cysts; small, firm papules with no visible opening; whitish, pearl-like masses of sebum and dead cells under the skin. Milia are more common in dry skin types and may form after skin trauma, such as a laser resurfacing.
Also known as prickly heat, acute inflammatory disorder of the sweat glands resulting in the eruption of red vesicles and burning, itching skin from excessive heat exposure.
Pigmented nevus; a brownish spot ranging in color from tan to bluish black. Some are flat, resembling freckles; others are raised and darker.
Also known as birthmark; malformation of the skin due to abnormal pigmentation or dilated capillaries.
These are often referred to as tumors, but these are smaller bumps caused by conditions such as scar tissue, fatty deposits, or infections.
Pimple; small elevation on the skin that contains no fluid but may develop pus
Acne-like condition around the mouth. These are mainly small clusters of papules that could be caused by toothpaste or products used on the face.
Primary lesions are characterized by flat, nonpalpable changes in skin color such as macules or patches, or an elevation formed by fluid in a cavity, such as vesicles, bullae, or pustules.
Also known as razor bumps; resembles folliculitis without the pus or infection.
Raised, inflamed papule with a white or yellow center containing pus in the top of the lesion referred to as the head of the pimple.
Skin disease characterized by red patches covered with white-silver scales. It is caused by an overproliferation of skin cells that replicate too fast. Immune dysfunction could be the cause. Psoriasis is usually found in patches on the scalp, elbows, knees, chest, and lower back.
Hereditary factor in which dead skin cells build up and do not shed from the follicles as they do on normal skin.
Flaky Flaky skin skin cells cells; any any thin plate of epidermal fiakes, dry or olly. An example is abnormal or excessive dandruff.
Light-colored, slightly raised mark on the skin formed after an injury or lesion of the skin has healed up. The tissue hardens to heal the injury. Elevated scars are hypertrophic;a keloid is a hypertrophic (abnormal) scar
Similar to open comedones, these are mainly solidified impactions of oil without the cell matter
Benign lesions frequently seen in oilier areas of the face. An overgrowth of the sebaceous gland, they appear similar to open comedones; often doughnut-shaped, with sebaceous material in the center.
Severe oiliness of the skin: an abnormal secretion from the sebaceous glands.
Common form of eczema; mainly affects oily areas: characterized by inflammation, scaling and/or itching
Skin damage, developed in the later stages of disease, that changes the structure of tissues or organs.
Small, benign outgrowths or extensions of the skin that look like flaps; common under the arms or on the neck.
squamous cell carcinoma
Type of skin cancer more serious than basal cell carcinoma; characterized by scaly, red or pink papules or nodules; also appear as open sores or crusty areas; can grow and spread in the body
Brown or wine-colored discoloration with a circular and/or irregular shape. Stains occur after certain diseases, or after moles, freckles, or liver spots disappear. A port wine stain is a birthmark, which is a vascular type of nevus.
Sebaceous cyst or subcutaneous tumor filled with sebum; ranges in size from a pea to an orange. It usually appears on the scalp, neck, and back; also called a wen
Increase in pigmentation due to the melanin production that results from exposure to UV radiation; visible skin damage. Melanin is designed to help protect the skin from the sun's UV radiation.
A contagious condition caused by fungal infection and not a parasite; characterized by itching, scales, and, sometimes, painful lesions.
Also known as ringworm; a contagious infection that forms a ringed, red pattern with elevated edges.
Abnormal rounded, solid lump; larger than a papule.
Large nodule; an abnormal cell mass resulting from excessive cell multiplication and varying in size, shape, and color
Open lesion on the skin or mucous membrane of the body, accompanied by pus and loss of skin depth. A deep erosion; a depression in the skin, normally due to infection or cancer.
Also known as hives; caused by an allergic reaction from the body's histamine production.
Vascular lesions; dilated and twisted veins, most commonly in the legs.
Vascular dilation of the blood vessels.
Also known as wart; hypertrophy of the papillae and epidermis caused by a virus. It is infectious and contagious.
Small blister or sac containing clear fluid. Poison ivy and poison oak produce vesicles
Pigmentation disease characterized by white patches on the skin from lack of pigment cells; sunlight makes it worse.
Itchy, swollen lesion caused by a blow, insect bite, skin allergy reaction, or stings. Hives and mosquito bites are wheals. Hives (urticaria) can be caused by exposure to allergens used in products.
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