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187 terms

Muscles of Face, Soft Palate, and Pharynx

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Orbicularis oris inferior and superior
Origin
Corner of lips
Orbicularis oris inferior and superior
Course
Laterally within lips
Orbicularis oris inferior and superior
Insertion
Opposite corner of lips
Orbicularis oris inferior and superior
Innervation
VII Facial Nerve
Orbicularis oris inferior and superior
Function
Constricts oral opening
Risorius
Origin
Posterior region of face
Along fascia of Masseter
Risorius
Course
Forward
Risorius
Insertion
Orbicularis oris at corners of mouth
Risorius
Innervation
VII Facial Nerve - Buccal branches
Risorius
Function
Retracts lips at the corners
Buccinator
Origin
Pterygomandibular ligament
Buccinator
Course
Forward
Buccinator
Insertion
Orbicularis oris at corners of mouth
Buccinator
Innervation
VII Facial Nerve - Buccal branches
Buccinator
Function
Moves food onto grinding surfaces of molars
Constricts oropharynx
Levator labii alaeque nasi superioris
Origin
Maxilla frontal process
Levator labii alaeque nasi superioris
Course
Vertically along lateral margin of nose
Levator labii alaeque nasi superioris
Insertion
Mid-lateral region of upper lip
Levator labii alaeque nasi superioris
Innervation
VII Facial Nerve - Buccal branches
Levator labii alaeque nasi superioris
Function
Elevates upper lip
Levator labii superioris
Origin
Maxilla infraorbital margin
Levator labii superioris
Course
Down & in to upper lip
Levator labii superioris
Insertion
Mid-lateral region of upper lip
Levator labii superioris
Innervation
VII Facial Nerve - Buccal branches
Levator labii superioris
Function
Elevates upper lip
Zygomatic minor
Origin
Zygomatic bone facial surface
Zygomatic minor
Course
Downward
Zygomatic minor
Insertion
Mid-lateral region of upper lip
Zygomatic minor
Innervation
VII Facial Nerve - Buccal branches
Zygomatic minor
Function
Elevates upper lip
Zygomatic major (zygomaticus)
Origin
Zygomatic bone lateral to zygomatic minor
Zygomatic major (zygomaticus)
Course
Obliquely down
Zygomatic major (zygomaticus)
Insertion
Corner of orbicularis oris
Zygomatic major (zygomaticus)
Innervation
VII Facial Nerve - Buccal branches
Zygomatic major (zygomaticus)
Function
Elevates & retracts angle of mouth
Depressor anguli oris (triangularis)
Origin
Mandible lateral margins on oblique line
Depressor anguli oris (triangularis)
Course
Fans up
Depressor anguli oris (triangularis)
Insertion
Orbicularis oris and upper lip at corner
Depressor anguli oris (triangularis)
Innervation
VII Facial Nerve - Mandibular marginal branch
Depressor anguli oris (triangularis)
Function
Depresses corners of mouth
Helps to compress upper lip against lower lip
Depressor labii inferioris
Origin
Mandible at oblique line
Depressor labii inferioris
Course
Up & in
Depressor labii inferioris
Insertion
Lower lip
Depressor labii inferioris
Innervation
VII Facial Nerve - Mandibular marginal branch
Depressor labii inferioris
Function
Dilates orifice by pulling lip down and out
Mentalis
Origin
Mandible region of incisive fossa
Mentalis
Course
Down
Mentalis
Insertion
Skin of the chin below
Mentalis
Innervation
VII Facial Nerve - Mandibular marginal branch
Mentalis
Function
Elevates and wrinkles chin
Pulls lower lip out
Platysma
Origin
Fascia overlaying pectoralis major and deltoid
Platysma
Course
Up
Platysma
Insertion
Corner of mouth
Region below symphysis mente
Mandible lower margin
Skin near the masseter
Platysma
Innervation
VII Facial Nerve - Cervical branch
Platysma
Function
Depresses mandible
Facial Muscles
Orbicularis oris inferior and superior
Risorius
Buccinator
Levator labii alaeque nasi superioris
Levator labii superioris
Zygomatic minor
Zygomatic major (zygomaticus)
Depressor anguli oris (triangularis)
Depressor labii inferioris
Mentalis
Platysma
Intrinsic & Extrinsic Tongue Muscles
Superior longitudinal
Inferior longitudinal
Transverse muscle of tongue
Vertical muscle of tongue

Genioglossus
Hyoglossus
Styloglossus

---> Median fibrous septum
Mandibular Elevators & Depressors
Masseter
Temporalis
Medial pterygoid (internal pterygoid)

Lateral pterygoid (external pterygoid)

Digastricus, anterior belly
Digastricus, posterior belly
Mylohyoid
Geniohyoid

---> pterygoid fossa vs pterygoid fovea
Muscles of the Velum
Levator veli palatini (levator palati)
Musculus uvulae
Tensor veli palatini (tensor veli palati)
Palatoglossus
Palatopharyngeus

---> palatal aponeurosis
Muscles of Pharynx
Superior pharyngeal constrictor
Middle pharyngeal constrictor
Inferior pharyngeal constrictor: cricopharyngeus muscle
Inferior pharyngeal constrictor: thyropharyngeus muscle
Superior longitudinal
Origin
Fibrous submucous layer near the Epiglottis
Hyoid
Median fibrous septum
Superior longitudinal
Course
Fans forward and outward
Superior longitudinal
Insertion
Tongue apex and lateral margins
Superior longitudinal
Innervation
XII Hypoglossal Nerve
Superior longitudinal
Function
Elevates tip of tongue
Assists in retraction, Deviates tip of tongue
Inferior longitudinal
Origin
Tongue root
Hyoid corpus
Inferior longitudinal
Course
Forward
Inferior longitudinal
Insertion
Tongue apex
Inferior longitudinal
Innervation
XII Hypoglossal Nerve
Inferior longitudinal
Function
Pulls tip of tongue downward
Assists in retraction, deviates tongue
Transverse muscle of tongue
Origin
Median fibrous septum
Transverse muscle of tongue
Course
Laterally
Transverse muscle of tongue
Insertion
Side of tongue in submucous tissue
Transverse muscle of tongue
Innervation
XII Hypoglossal Nerve
Transverse muscle of tongue
Function
Narrows tongue
Vertical muscle of tongue
Origin
Base of tongue
Vertical muscle of tongue
Course
Vertically
Vertical muscle of tongue
Insertion
Membranous cover
Vertical muscle of tongue
Innervation
XII Hypoglossal Nerve
Vertical muscle of tongue
Function
Pulls tongue down into floor of mouth
Genioglossus
Origin
Mental spines, inner surface of mandible (at symphysis)
Genioglossus
Course
Fans up, back, & down
Genioglossus
Insertion
Tongue tip and dorsum
Hyoid corpus
Genioglossus
Innervation
XII Hypoglossal Nerve
Genioglossus
Function
Anterior Fibers: Retract tongue
Posterior Fibers: Protrude tongue
Together: Depress tongue
Hyoglossus
Origin
Hyoid, greater cornu & corpus
Hyoglossus
Course
Upward
Hyoglossus
Insertion
Sides of tongue between styloglossus & inferior longitudinal muscles
Hyoglossus
Innervation
XII Hypoglossal Nerve
Hyoglossus
Function
Pulls sides of tongue down
Styloglossus
Origin
Styloid process anterolateral margin
Styloglossus
Course
Forward & down
Styloglossus
Insertion
Inferior sides of tongue
Styloglossus
Innervation
XII Hypoglossal Nerve
Styloglossus
Function
Draws tongue back & up
Masseter
Origin
Zygomatic arch
Masseter
Course
Down
Masseter
Insertion
Mandible ramus & coronoid process
Masseter
Innervation
V Trigeminal Nerve, mandibular branch
Masseter
Function
Elevates mandible
Temporalis
Origin
Temporal fossa of temporal & parietal bones
Temporalis
Course
Converging downward & forward, thru zygomatic arch
Temporalis
Insertion
Mandible ramus & coronoid process
Temporalis
Innervation
V Trigeminal Nerve, temporal branches
Temporalis
Function
Elevates mandible
Draws mandible back if protruded
Medial pterygoid (internal pterygoid)
Origin
Medial pterygoid plate & fossa
Medial pterygoid (internal pterygoid)
Course
Down & back
Medial pterygoid (internal pterygoid)
Insertion
Mandibular ramus
Medial pterygoid (internal pterygoid)
Innervation
V Trigeminal Nerve, mandibular branch
Medial pterygoid (internal pterygoid)
Function
Elevates mandible
Important in grinding action of teeth
Lateral pterygoid (external pterygoid)
Origin
Lateral pterygoid plate
Greater wing of sphenoid
Lateral pterygoid (external pterygoid)
Course
Back
Lateral pterygoid (external pterygoid)
Insertion
Mandible pterygoid fovea
Lateral pterygoid (external pterygoid)
Innervation
V Trigeminal Nerve, mandibular branch
Lateral pterygoid (external pterygoid)
Function
Protrudes mandible
Important in grinding action of teeth
Digastricus, anterior belly
Origin
Mandible inner surface near symphysis at digastricus fossa
Digastricus, anterior belly
Course
Medially & down
Digastricus, anterior belly
Insertion
Intermediate tendon to juncture of hyoid corpus & greater cornu
Digastricus, anterior belly
Innervation
V Trigeminal Nerve, mandibular branch
Digastricus, anterior belly
Function
Pulls hyoid forward
With posterior: Depresses mandible
Digastricus, posterior belly
Origin
Mastoid process of temporal bone
Digastricus, posterior belly
Course
Medially & down
Digastricus, posterior belly
Insertion
Intermediate tendon to juncture of hyoid corpus & greater cornu
Digastricus, posterior belly
Innervation
VII Facial Nerve, digastric branch
Digastricus, posterior belly
Function
Pulls hyoid back
With Anterior: Depresses mandible
Mylohyoid
Origin
Mylohyoid line, inner mandible
Mylohyoid
Course
Back & down
Mylohyoid
Insertion
Median fibrous raphe inferior to hyoid
Mylohyoid
Innervation
V Trigeminal Nerve, mandibular branch
Mylohyoid
Function
Depresses mandible
Geniohyoid
Origin
Mental spines, inner surface of mandible
Geniohyoid
Course
Medially
Geniohyoid
Insertion
Hyoid corpus
Geniohyoid
Innervation
XII Hypoglossal Nerve
C1 Spinal Nerve
Geniohyoid
Function
Depresses mandible
Levator veli palatini (levator palati)
Origin
Petrous portion apex, temporal bone
Eustachian tube cartilage, medial wall
Levator veli palatini (levator palati)
Course
Down & forward
Levator veli palatini (levator palati)
Insertion
Soft palate palatal aponeurosis, lateral to musculus uvulae
Levator veli palatini (levator palati)
Innervation
X Vagus
XI Accessory
Levator veli palatini (levator palati)
Function
Elevates & retracts posterior velum
Musculus uvulae
Origin
Posterior nasal spines of palatine bones
Palatal aponeurosis
Musculus uvulae
Course
Runs length of soft palate
Musculus uvulae
Insertion
Velum, mucous membrane cover
Musculus uvulae
Innervation
X Vagus
XI Accessory
Musculus uvulae
Function
Shortens soft palate
Tensor veli palatini (tensor veli palati)
Origin
Scaphoid fossa of sphenoid
Sphenoid spine
Eustachian tube lateral wall
Tensor veli palatini (tensor veli palati)
Course
Down
Terminates in tendon that passes around pterygoid hamulus
Then is directed medially
Tensor veli palatini (tensor veli palati)
Insertion
Palatal aponeurosis
Tensor veli palatini (tensor veli palati)
Innervation
V Trigeminal Nerve, mandibular branch
Tensor veli palatini (tensor veli palati)
Function
Dilates Eustachian tube
Tenses & flattens soft palate
Palatoglossus
Origin
Anterolateral palatal aponeurosis
Palatoglossus
Course
Down
Palatoglossus
Insertion
Sides of posterior tongue
Palatoglossus
Innervation
X Vagus
XI Accessory
Palatoglossus
Function
Elevates tongue or
Depresses soft palate
Palatopharyngeus
Origin
Soft palate, anterior hard palate midline
Palatopharyngeus
Course
Laterally & down
Palatopharyngeus
Insertion
Thyroid cartilage, posterior margin
Palatopharyngeus
Innervation
X Vagus
XI Accessory
Palatopharyngeus
Function
Narrows pharynx
Lowers soft palate
Superior pharyngeal constrictor
Origin
Pterygomandibular raphe
Superior pharyngeal constrictor
Course
Posteriorly
Superior pharyngeal constrictor
Insertion
Median pharyngeal raphe
Superior pharyngeal constrictor
Innervation
X Vagus
XI Accessory
Superior pharyngeal constrictor
Function
Pulls pharyngeal wall forward
Constricts pharyngeal diameter
Middle pharyngeal constrictor
Origin
Hyoid horns
Stylohyoid ligament
Middle pharyngeal constrictor
Course
Up & back
Middle pharyngeal constrictor
Insertion
Median pharyngeal raphe
Middle pharyngeal constrictor
Innervation
X Vagus
XI Accessory
Middle pharyngeal constrictor
Function
Narrows pharyngeal diameter
Inferior pharyngeal constrictor: cricopharyngeus
Origin
Cricoid cartilage
Inferior pharyngeal constrictor: cricopharyngeus
Course
Back
Inferior pharyngeal constrictor: cricopharyngeus
Insertion
Orifice of esophagus
Inferior pharyngeal constrictor: cricopharyngeus
Innervation
X Vagus
XI Accessory
Inferior pharyngeal constrictor: cricopharyngeus
Function
Constricts superior orifice of esophagus
Inferior pharyngeal constrictor: thyropharyngeus
Origin
Thyroid lamina oblique line
Inferior pharyngeal constrictor: thyropharyngeus
Course
Up & back
Inferior pharyngeal constrictor: thyropharyngeus
Insertion
Median pharyngeal raphe
Inferior pharyngeal constrictor: thyropharyngeus
Innervation
X Vagus
XI Accessory
Inferior pharyngeal constrictor: thyropharyngeus
Function
Reduces diameter of lower pharynx
Palatal (palatine) aponeurosis
Attached to the posterior border of the hard palate is a thin, firm fibrous lamella called the palatine aponeurosis, which supports the muscles and gives strength to the soft palate.

It is thicker above than below, where it becomes very thin and difficult to define.

Laterally it is continuous with the pharyngeal aponeurosis.

It serves as the insertion for the Tensor veli palatini and Levator veli palatini, and the origin for the Musculus uvulae, Palatopharyngeus, and Palatoglossus.[1]

It provides support for the soft palate.
Median fibrous septum
The tongue is divided into lateral halves by a median fibrous septum which extends throughout its entire length and is fixed below to the hyoid bone. In either half there are two sets of muscles, extrinsic and intrinsic; the former have their origins outside the tongue, the latter are contained entirely within it.
Pterygoid fovea of mandible
The pterygoid fovea (occasionally called pit or depression) is a concave surface on the uppermost medial side of the ramus of the mandible.
Located behind the mandibular notch and below of the condyloid process on the head of the mandible, the pterygoid fovea forms the anterior surface of the neck of the mandible and serves for the attachment of the lateral pterygoid muscle.

Not to be confused with the pterygoid fossa of the sphenoid bone.
Pterygoid fossa of sphenoid bone
The pterygoid fossa is an anatomical term for the fossa formed by the divergence of the lateral pterygoid plate and the medial pterygoid plate of the sphenoid bone.
The lateral and medial pteryoid plates (of the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone) diverge behind and enclose between them a V-shaped fossa, the pterygoid fossa. This fossa faces posteriorly, and contains the medial pterygoid muscle and the tensor veli palatini muscle.
Scaphoid fossa
In the pterygoid processes of the sphenoid, above the pterygoid fossa is a small, oval, shallow depression, the scaphoid fossa, which gives origin to the Tensor veli palatini.
Raphe
The seamlike union of the two lateral halves of a part or organ (as the tongue) having externally a ridge or furrow
Pterygomandibular raphe
The pterygomandibular raphe (pterygomandibular ligament) is a tendinous band of the buccopharyngeal fascia, attached by one extremity to the hamulus of the medial pterygoid plate, and by the other to the posterior end of the mylohyoid line of the mandible.
* Its medial surface is covered by the mucous membrane of the mouth.
* Its lateral surface is separated from the ramus of the mandible by a quantity of adipose tissue.
* Its posterior border gives attachment to the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle.
* Its anterior border attaches to the posterior edge of the buccinator.