pyshco final

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reflex
is an innate, automatic reaction, involving a simple, rapid response to specific stimulus, which does not depend on conscious thought or processing by the brain.

- can be modified by experience

EX: During babyhood, if ___________ are absent or disappear there
may be a problem with the nervous system
learning
a lasting change caused by experience
Fixed-Action Pattern
is a complex instinctual innate behaviour that is species specific. it is prevalent in nearly all members of a species, and is triggered by certain environmental stimuli.

Part of normal maturation
Invisible and run to completion
Difficult to change
Unconditioned stimulus (US)
Stimulus that causes a response that is automatic and not learned
Unconditioned response (UR)
The automatic response to unconditioned stimulus, it does not need to be learned.
Conditioned response (CR)
Learned response to a stimulus that was previously neutral or meaningless. it is usually the same as the unconditioned response
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
Previously neutral stimulus that because of pairing with an unconditioned response, now causes a conditioned response
Neutral stimulus (NS)
Stimulus that that has no association to a response
Conditional Stimulus
A previously neutral stimulus that after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus becomes a trigger for a conditioned response
(Cs) conditioned stimulus -song

(US) unconditioned stimulus-kiss with a person that attracted to

(UR) unconditioned response - Arousal/nervousness after kiss

(CR) conditioned response - arousal/nervousness when hearing song
A song continues to evoke arousal and nervousness in a person who hear date song during her first kiss with a person to whom she was wild attracted. What is the

unconditioned stimulus,

unconditioned response,

conditioned stimulus

and conditioned response?
(Cs) conditioned stimulus - Motorcycle

(US) unconditioned stimulus - stunt

(UR) unconditioned response - pain from stunt

(CR) conditioned response - fear when seeing a motorcycle
A stunt man has a terrible accident causing immense pain while performing a stunt on a motorcycle. Thereafter motorcycles elicit fear. What is the...

unconditioned stimulus,

unconditioned response,

conditioned stimulus

and conditioned response?
(Cs) conditioned stimulus - smell of cologne

(US) unconditioned stimulus - date

(UR) unconditioned response - arousal/passion experienced while on date

(CR) conditioned response - joy when smelling cologne in the car
Jacob's date was wearing a very alluring cologne on their recent date. The date itself was quite passionate. The following day when Jacob gets into his car he smells the lingering scent of his date's cologne and becomes transfixed with joy. What is the....

unconditioned stimulus,

unconditioned response,

conditioned stimulus

and conditioned response?
(Cs) conditioned stimulus - German Shepherd

(US) unconditioned stimulus - bite

(UR) unconditioned response - pain from the bite

(CR) conditioned response - fear when seeing a dog
Chris is bitten by the neighbor's German Shepherd. Now whenever she sees a dog in the neighborhood, she becomes afraid. What is the...
unconditioned stimulus,

unconditioned response,

conditioned stimulus

and conditioned response?
(Cs) conditioned stimulus - Flavor of vodka and orange juice

(US) unconditioned stimulus - Illness

(UR) unconditioned response - Vomiting from illness associated with too much alcohol

(CR) conditioned response - vomiting from smell of vodka and orange juice
You throw a wild party at which you consume too much alcohol (vodka and orange juice). You become very sick and spend a few hours vomiting. The next morning while cleaning up the mess, you get a whiff of the vodka and orange juice that were still sitting out in the kitchen, You immediately become nauseated and run to the bathroom and vomit some more. What is the...

unconditioned stimulus,

unconditioned response,

conditioned stimulus

and conditioned response?
Classical Conditioning
It is a learning process that builds up association between 2 stimuli by repeating the same scenario many times
In Pavlov what is the neutral stimulus?
the bell having no effect at the start
what was pavlovs experiment?
study when a dog salivates at food that is paired with a bell and then begins to salivate at the sound of the bell?
Operant condition
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened it followed by a reinforcer or diminished followed by a punishment
(act of enviroment)
reinforcement
in operant conditioning any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
positive reinforcement
increases behaviors by presenting positive stimuli such as food. It is anything that when resented after a response strengthens a response.
Negative reinforcement
increases behavior by stopping and reducing negative stimuli such as shock. or anything that when removed after a response strengthens a response
punishment
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
Releaser
Example of a red belly fish is what, when the more red it has the greater
The response
EDWARD THORNDIKE
man who came up with, Law of Effect states, that a response followed by a pleasant consequence is more likely to be repeated, whereas a response followed by an unpleasant consequence is more likely to be diminished. The Law of Effect is directly a function of the interactions between positive (pleasant) and negative (unpleasant) reinforcements and punishments
B.F. SKINNER
man who cam up with idea to Reinforcing Stimulus/Reinforcing Concepts defines a reinforcing stimulus or reinforcer as a special kind of a stimulus encountered by someone performs a behavior. This special stimulus has the effect of increasing the behavior occurring just before the reinforcer. Skinner's concepts state that if a behavior is followed by a consequence, and the nature of the consequence modifies tendency to repeat the behavior in the future. A behavior followed by a reinforcing stimulus may result in an increased probability of that behavior occurring in the future; while a behavior that lacks a reinforcing stimulus may result in a decreased probability of that behavior occurring in the future.
Operant conditioning
is a type of learning where behavior is controlled by consequences. Key concepts in operant conditioning are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment and negative punishment.
20 percent. Does not work because people focused more on sexual object than product
What percent of ad use sexuality to cut the retroactive interference and stand out. Why does this not always work
-Differential reinforcement in shaping, fading and creation of new operants
-Emergence based on higher order classes
-Combining behavior classes: adduction, transfer of function and their variations
what are the Sources of novel behavior
In two, the animal need not observe other animals, but is either guided through an action (modeling) or reinforced for any spontaneous act closer to desired (shaping). In the other two, the animals observe other animals and copy their actions (imitation and mimicry
what is novel behavior (4 parts split into 2 and 2)
Modeling
- is we put the organism through the motions we want them to perform. This can bring the organism closer—but they will still have to perform the action
- Thinking molding clay ( moving hand in position)
shaping
- method is called "successive approximations
- we break a desired goal action into a series of subgoal
- when the animal is on a continuous reinforcement schedule, we reinforce the first few occurrences of every step closer to the goal
Extinction Burst
when we , we don't reinforce a performance
- In response to this lack of reinforcement, the animal performs the action again with more vigor.
shaping
differential reinforcement of successive approximations to a performance criterion
- is when we wait for the animal to perform an action that will lead it to a final desired action
- reinforce, reinforce, reinforce
shaping because she is self shaping her behavior
Norman Rockwell's Girl in mirror is example of what
imitation
- duplication of a previously trained and reinforced behavior
- physical movement that is the model which evokes an imitative response
- a behavior of the observer quickly follows a modeled behavior
- they can modify their behavior after seeing the consequences of another's behavior even if they don't perform the behavior themselves.
- See someone and copy them
low effect (not good)
what was the Effects of sex on eye patterns in advertisment and memory
Intelligence
what is mental age based on IQ
imitation
example of a baby chimp monkey watching a mom crack nuts to learn it themselves is a exsample of what
G factor
term described by charles spearman as a existence of a broad mental capacity that influences performance on cognitive ability measures.
- is responsible for overall performance on mental ability tests
intelligence quotient (IQ)
is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.
1. Accustom to culture - expected to know
2. standardization- test what it says is testing (standardize / valid)
3. Reliable - same result every time
what are the three things a accurate IQ test must have
1. Sensorimotor
2. PreOperational
3. Concrete Operations
4. Formal Operations
what are the four stages of PIJ
schema
describes both the mental and physical actions involved in understanding and knowing.
- are categories of knowledge that help us to interpret and understand the world.
Scheme
A young girl knows that a horse is large, has four legs, and a tail. But when the girl encounters a cow for the first time, she might initially call it a horse. This is a example of a what
Assimilation
example of when a child sees a dog and labels it dog because because the animal fits into child's Chema for a dog is known as what
Assimilation
process of taking in new information into our already existing schemas, is sometimes subjective b/c we tend to modify experiences and information slightly to fit in with our preexisting beliefs.
ex: seeing a dog and labeling it "dog"
Accommodation
part of adaptation involves changing or altering our existing schemas in light of new information. involves modifying existing schemas, or ideas, as a result of new information or new experiences
Sensorimotor stage
stage in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
PreOperational stage
stage in Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
concrete operational stage
stage in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
formal operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
Object perminance / conservation
the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
- idea that young kids don't understand when you cut a sandwich in half, you don't have two sandwiches, its still one sandwich.
projective test
a psychological test in which words, images, or situations are presented to a person and the responses analyzed for the unconscious expression of elements of personality that they reveal.
1. self-report
2. informant report
3. life-outcome data
4. situational test data
what are the 4 classes of data used in measurement of personality
Hexaco test
model of personality structure is a six-dimensional model of human personality that was created by Ashton and Lee and explained in their book, The H Factor of Personality,[1] based on findings from a series of lexical studies involving several European and Asian languages. The six factors, or dimensions, include Honesty-Humility (H), Emotionality (E), Extraversion (X), Agreeableness (A), Conscientiousness (C), and Openness to Experience (O). Each factor is composed of traits with characteristics indicating high and low levels of the factor.
1) redefines a couple of the factors, believing they belong under a different domain.
2) introduces a 6th factor---honesty-humility
What does the HEXACO model do differently than the (FFM) Five Factor Personality Test
H-- Honesty-Humility
E-- Emotionality (neuroticism)
X-- eXtraversion
A-- Agreeableness
C-- Conscientiousness
O--Openness
What does the HEXACO model stand for?
(MBTI) Myers Briggs Type Indicator
A personality inventory which categorises an individual into one of 16 personality types depending on their preferences for how they perceive the world and make decisions. The inventory is based on the psychodynamic personality theory that was developed by the Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung .
Rorschach and thematic apperception test (TAT)
What two major test are the most famous enough projective test but are flawed and have limited value
Katherine Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers.
Who was responsible for designing and creating the (MBTI) Myers Briggs Type Indicator test?
~Extraversion (E)-Introversion (I)
~Sensing (S)-Intuition (N)
~Thinking (T)-Feeling (F)
~Judging ( J)-Perceiving (P)
What are the four different dimensions of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) test?
Rorschach inkblot test
the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed b Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
Prosargnasia
losing the ability to recognize faces
Pareidolia
The tendency to perceive meaningful image in meaningless visual stimuli
Occipital temporal junction
What area in our brain helps recognize faces
Thematic Aperception Test (TAT)
-pictures & stories test
-responses scored according to motives and conflicts expressed in the stories
Extraversion, Neuroticism, Openness to Experiences, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness
Big Five/Five Factor Theory
Lüscher color test
test where sensory perception of color is objective and universally shared by all, but that color preferences are subjective, and that this distinction allows subjective states to be objectively measured by using test colors. it is believed that color selections are guided in an unconscious manner, they reveal the person as they really are, not as they perceive themselves or would like to be perceived.
1st step: tested by showing same culture photo.
2nd step : show another culture.
3rd step: take pictures of them and show us
what are the steps of cross culture of emotions
happiness -
sadness -
surprise -
fear -
disgust -
anger -
what facial expressions are most likely to be cross cultural (6)
Prototypical face
The most typical example of a face. Produced when many different faces are averaged
symmetrical and average prototypical theory
what two factors determine a person face as attractive
Golgotha - A Hebrew word meaning "place of the skull," referring to the place where Jesus was crucified.
what is a example of paradolia
Paradolia
- reconizing and finding faces in non human/ faced objects
- exsample face in rock
- Attribution of significance to vague image (smiley face in the moon)
an inability to recognize the faces of familiar people, typically as a result of damage to the brain.
what is Prosopagnoisa
Blood, phlegm, yellow bile, black bile
What are the four humors in Greek philosophy
Sanguine (air) in season of spring
- hot and moist
What is the temperament of blood?
choleric (fire) in season of summer
- hot and dry
What is the temperament of yellow bile?
melancholic (earth) , in season of winter
- cold and dry
What is the temperament of black bile?
phlegmatic (water), in season of fall
- cold and mosit
What is the temperament of phlegm?
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