TEST 12/6 MARTIN, "No taxation without Representation" up to and including Provisions of the Treaty of Paris. *remember study your notes*
Terms in this set (121)
What rights did colonists believe they should have?
Colonists believed they should have the same rights as people living in Britain.
Did Britain like the view the colonists held?
No, the Britains thought of it as dangerous
Why did the Colonists believe they should partake in the same rights as the Brits at home
Colonists believed they should have the same rights because they were taxed but weren't representated.
Who approved the four resolutions regarding No Taxation without Representation?
Virginia's House of Burgesses
Who is the leader of Virginia's House of Burgesses?
What would the colonists be able to enjoy under "No Taxation without representation"
Include liberties, privileges, franchise, and immunities
What kind of representation did the colonists want from Britain?
Actual representation, they wanted representation in Parliament.
Whats another name for French and Indian War?
7 years war
What was the French and Indian war?
Part of a series of wars and world war in 18th century between France and England
Why did the French and Indian War break out?
Both countries contested land in the New World
When did the French and Indian War break out?
What Native group sided with the French mainly, but also sided with the British
Where did the French move their troops during 7 years war?
Ohio Valley, and they claimed it.
What problems did claiming the Ohio Valley cause for the French?
This caused problems for people investing in fur trade. If the British were driven out of Ohio then the Virginians would lose a lot of money.
Who ordered George Washing to take Virginia militia to warn the French to leave Ohio Valley
Who surprised the French on May 28
Washington and his native allies
Where did Washington head to?
Fort Duquesne (nowaday Pittsburgh)
What happened when the French were surpised on May 28?
Native Americans massacred the French.
What fort did Washington establish?
When did the French and Indian war end?
How did the British pay for the war?
They taxed the colonists. George Greenville imposed most of these taxes
What did King George III issue to prevent French confliction after the 7 years war
Royal Proclamation of 1763, it said nobody could settle west of the Appalachians
How did colonists react to the Royal Proclamation?
They believed they deserved the land they had beat the French for
What was one of the products England taxed the colonists for?
Why did colonists not like the Sugar Tax?
They believed that the Englishmen and Britain as a whole benefited from the French and Indian War. So they should all help pay for the war.
How did British respond to the pushback of the Sugar act
They said that theoretically the colonists were British, but in reality they were colonists
What was the second product that had a tax imposed on it?
Paper (The Stamp Act 1765)
What did the Stamp Act mean?
When you bought something, it had to have the government stamp on it that certified that taxes had been collected
What happened to Royal Tax collectors?
They often were seized and tarred (most of the time it was molasses) and feathered.
What was so significant about the Stamp Act?
This was the first act that affected all levels of colonial society.
When was the Stamp Act Congress formed?
How many delegates met and where did they meet?
27 delegates from nine colonies met in New york
What happened at the Stamp Act congress?
They swore allegiance to the crown and subordination to Parliament.
What did the colonies insist on?
The right to consent to taxation was "essential to the freedom of a people."
What was a result of the Stamp Act congress?
They would boycott British goods until Stamp Act was repealed. American colonies were now united.
When and why did the sons of liberty start?
1765 and it was in response to the Stamp Act
Who were apart of the Sons of Liberty
Merchants who opposed "any limitation on trade and tax on it"
What did the sons of liberty lead to?
the boycott of British Goods. (The Stamp Act congress also did this)
What were colonists? (writs of assistance)
Smugglers, free market capitalists believing they could trade with anyone.
What did the English Bill of Rights state?
It stated that accused smugglers had right to trial by jury of peers and the trail took place in the smuggler's hometown
Who were the juries made up of?
People in the town
Why did the accused smuggler have an advantage?
Since towns were smaller, the accused were usually related, employed by or best friends with some of the jury.
What was the outcome of most trials for accused smugglers?
The accused would often be acquitted even though they were obviously guilty.
How did the royal prosecutors respond to this?
Admiralty Court in Newfoundland or Nova Scotia.
How did colonists feel about the Admiralty court?
They felt it violated their rights
Why was the Writs of Assistance passed?
To help enforce new scrticter laws on smuggling.
What is a writ of assistance?
search warrant that never expires and doesn't specify what house is searched, gave royal authorities right to search any house whenever they wanted.
How did colonists feel about the writs of assistance?
They believed this expanded government power too far
Why were the Virginia resolves passed?
The Virginia General Assembly passed this in response of the Stamp Act of 1765.
What did the resolves claim?
in accordance with British law, Virginia was subject to taxation by only parliamentary assembly to which Virginians themselves elected representatives. Since no colonial representatives were elected to the Parliament the only assembly legally allowed to raise taxes would be the Virginia General Assembly
When was the Boston Massacre?
March 5, 1770
How many died because of the Boston Massacre?
5 Civilians died
What did the Boston Massacre result in?
sparked rebellion in some American colonies, leading to American Revolution. Heavy British military presence in Boston led to brawls between soldiers and civilians. Colonists throwing snowballs, soldier's weapon fired when he slipped on ice. Troops discharging their muskets after being attacked by rioting crowd.
Who shot first in the boston massacre
The british troops fired on colonists
Who made up the Committee of Correspondence?
Local government of the thirteen colonies before the American Revolution
What was drinking tea a symbol of?
It began as a status of wealth, but it became popular with all classes in England's colonies
What was the name of the Tea company Britain owned
East India Company
Where did britain get its tea from?
Why was East India the best at selling tea
It sold low priced/high quality tea to colonies
What caused the boycott of tea?
Parliament gave a monopoly to the company and put colonial tea merchants out of business
When did the Boston tea party take place?
December 16, 1773
Why did the colonists objected to the Tea Act
They believed that it violated their right to be taxed only by their own elected representatives
How did Parliament respond to the Boston Tea Party?
They created the Coercive acts (Intolerable acts in 1774) until the British East India Company was repaid.
How did colonists react to the Coercive acts?
They came together for the first Continental Congress
When did the first Continental Congress take place?
September 1774, delegates from several Massachusetts towns pass resolutions urging Americans to not obey new laws, without taxes, and prepare for war
Where did the Continental Congress take place?
Who did not send delegate to the CC
Why did Georgia not send a delegate?
Because they were funded by the British
When did the CC end?
Who were the minutemen?
Patriot militia ready to fight on a minute's notice. American Revolutionary war
What were some forms of resistance to the acts
Boycott, Public meetings/debates, pamphlets, demonstrations, homespun clothes.
Who were the Daughters of Liberty?
Colonial women who supported American boycotts of British products by producing homemade goods
Who was Paul Revere?
Son of Liberty who made Boston Massacre engraving. Also at the start of the war he rode on his horse shouting that the British are coming.
When did Paul Revere make his ride?
April 18, 1775
What happened at his midnight ride?
he and William Dawes were instructed by Dr. Joseph Warren to ride from Boston to Lexington to warn John Hancock and Samuel Adams of the movements of the British Army, which was beginning a march from Boston to Lexington to arrest John Hancock and Adam and Seize the weapons stores in Concord
What happened at Concord?
British Army regulars, under Lieutenant Colonel Francis Smith, had secret orders to capture and destroy military supplies reportedly stored by the Massachusetts militia at Concord
Where were the first shots fired?
What happened at North Bridge?
500 minutemen defeated three companies of king's troops
What happened at the Siege of Boston?
Minute men blockaded the narrow land access to Charlestown and Boston,
What percent of colonists chose not to participate in revolutionary activities?
33% or 1/3
What group of people didn't believe in war
Quakers, farmers that were apolitical
How did Loyalists view the Patriots?
ungrateful rebels just trying to stir up trouble
How were loyalists treated in the colonies?
Their property was seized, they were sometimes arrested, most were driven from the towns they had to grow up in and all felt betrayed by their neighbors.
When did the Second Continental Congress take place?
What happened at the 2nd CC
Authorized raising of army, money to pay for it, and appointed George Washington as commander of the forces
How did Britain respond to 2nd CC
In response , Britain
Declared colonies in astate of rebellion
Dispatched thousands of troops
Closed all colonial ports
How was this a progression? (from 1st CC to 2nd CC)
First continental congress= boycotting, total nonaggression
Second Continental Congress = next step paying for things, army, aggressive
What was the Olive Branch Petition?
Last attempt by the Patriots to patch things up with the king. It was rejected and led to the Declaration of Independence
Green Mountain Boys
In 1775, Vermont Blacksmith Ethan allen led a group known as the Green Mountain Boys in a surprise attack on Fort Ticonderoga, located at the Southern tip of Lake Champlain
Why is it benefical to be on the top of a hill during battle??
It is easier to shoot/defend down then up
What happened at Bunkerhill?
British troops charged up the hill multiple times
What famous command came out of the battle of bunker hill due to the patriots having low ammunition
"Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes"
Who technically won the battle of Bunkerhill
The british took over and the americans retreated
Who won the Battle of Bunker Hill in terms of the least amount of casualties?
The british lost 1346 over 40%, while the americans only had about 441 casualites
What did the battle of bunkerhill prove?
That the British Army wasn't invincible
Who wrote Common Sense
What was Common Sense?
A pamphlet that argued for independence from Britain and creation of a new democratic government.
Why was the Declaration of Independence "justified"
Justified independence by listing colonial grievances against the King
George III, and by asserting certain natural rights, including a right of revolution
Where did the largest groups of Patriots come from?
Virginia and Massachusetts
What was the limit of troops washington had
Washington never had more than 20,000 soldiers to command.
What were some problems patriot soldiers faced?
low supplies, poorly equipped and rarely paid
What were the circumstances leading up to the Battle fo Trenton?
Christmas Day, 1776, General Washington's Army was in a pitiful condition; Troops were deserting, it was bitter cold and they lacked food, shoes and blankets. Under blizzard-like conditions, Washington crossed the Delaware River, having heard from a scout that the Hessians (German mercenaries), were spending the evening relaxing and enjoying food and wine
Washington decided to cross at night and surprise them in the morning. The army silently advanced to the Delaware River. They crossed the icy Delaware eight miles north of Trenton and nine hours later 2400 men gathered around Washington to hear the order for the assault on Trenton
When did the Battle of Trenton take place?
December 25-26, 1776
What was the outcome of the battle of Trenton?
The Americans captured 900 Hessians. - Painting of G. Washington crossing the Delaware River. No colonial deaths.
How many tories (loyalists) were in america?
Where did the largest amounts of tories (loyalist) come from?
New York, New Jersey, and Georgia
Where did the Loyalists go?
Canada or back to Britain
Why did Native tribes support the British during the revolution?
British promised to limit colonial settlement in the West
Why did Patriots change their minds about allowing African americans to fight for them?
Britain promised freedom if AA fought with them
What was a turning point in the revolution?
Battle of Saratoga (Sept. 19 and Oct 7 1777)
What two other countries came into American side during revolution?
France (main) and also Spain
What two cities were under the control of British during Winter 1777-June 1778
Philadelphia and NYC
Who was Benedict Arnold?
He was a traitor and accepted money to join the British.
How were the plans of Benedict Arnold ruined?
In July 1780, he obtained command of West Point in order to surrender it to the British. Arnold's scheme was exposed when American forces captured British Major John André carrying papers that revealed the plot
When was the Colonial Navy authorized.
10/13/1775. Continental COngress approved
Who was John Paul Jones?
Father of the American Navy
What key battles did the americans win in January 1781?
North and South Carolina
What happened at the battle of Yorktown?
The American army and French navy surrounded the British Army and forced them to surrender in Yorktown, Virginia
Who lead the Americans and French in the battle of yorktown?
American - Major General George Washington
French - Comte de Rocambeau
Why was the battle of yorktown so significant?
It was the battle that ended the war. It caused the British support at home to end, and peace negotiation began
What were some of the agreements under the Treaty of Paris?
- Britain recognized United States as an independent nation
- Mississippi River-Western boundary of U.S, Great Lakes as the Northern boundary,
- Americans would have fishing rights off the coast of Canada
- Americans would pay debts owed to British merchants and honor Loyalist claims for property confiscation during the war
- Allow British troops to leave/Loyalists to stay
- U.S would have access to Mississippi River