Criminal Profiling

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3 Utilities to Profiling
1. Elicit confessions 2. Link suspects to crime 3. What to look for when apprehending suspect
5 Types of Profiling
1. Crime scene 2. Geographical 3. Suspect Based 4. Psychological 5. Equivocal Death Analysis/ Psychological Autopsy
Crime Scene Profiling
type of profiling: Deducting; sequence of events at location
Geographical Profiling
type of profiling: work, entertainment/ shopping, home
Suspect Based Profiling
type of profiling: Using paraphalis
Psychological Profiling
Type of profiling: Using behavior
Equivocal Death Analysis/ Psychological Autopsy
type of profiling: Death scene
5 Manners of Death
1. Natural causes 2. Accidental 3. Suicide 4. Homicide 5. Undetermined
7 Components of Criminal Profiling
1. Investigator 2. Crime Scene 3. Victimology 4. Offender Behavior Before & After Crime 5. Analysis of Direct Evidence 'Forensics' 6. Crime Analysis of the modus operandi 7. Case Controls
Investigator
This person has to be objective; put bias and prejudice aside
Crime Scene
Location- What does it say about offender
Victimology
From content of crime; who, what, where, how, why
Offender Behavior before & after Crime
What did they do at locations
Analysis of Direct Evidence 'Forensics'
Deductive part/ lab part
Forensics
To debate in public (court)
Crime Analysis of the modus operendi
Very intrusive process
8 Fundamental Premises of Criminal Profiling
1. Crime scene reflects personality of offender 2. M.O. will remain similar 3. Offender won't change his personality 4. Psychological profiling must have utility 5. Signature of offender will remain static 6. # of serial crimes increase, greater chances offender will be I.D.ed 7. More violent crime, greater chances offender will be I.D.ed 8. Adolescent behavior cannot always be used to predict adult behavior
Locard's Exchange Priniciple
Offenders always leaves and takes evidence when they enter and leave a crime scene
Larger sample=
Truer to population
Criminal Profiling is NOT...
Hocus-pocus, an exact science
Criminal Population
0.05% of total American society (critical limits of society)
Fixations
Goal based focus (could be anything)
Fetishes
Things that increase arousal (anything sexual)
Stalking
Very dangerous precursor to violent act/behavior
What is Profiling a mix of
Science and art
Paraphilia
Any repetitive behavior that is socially classified as being deviant or labeled as a perverson
What makes a Paraphilia
Lasts longer than 6 months, disrupts with social life, employment, and social interactions, becoming deviant, fed by fetishes
Paraphilias cluster
3 P's
Exhibitionism
Exposes themselves for arousal
Mallus Maleficarum
"The Hammer of Witches"
1st written documentation
"The Criminal Man"
By Caesar Lombroso
1835-1909, measuring prisoners skulls
Sheldon & Stevens
1940, continued Lombroso's work
Endomorph, Mesomorph, Ectomorph
Endomorph
Guys that are robust, soft & big
Mesomorph
Guys that are strong, muscular, buff
Criminals that are bold, crave adventure, crave exciting crimes
Ectomorph
Guys that are small, thin, and frial
"Criminal Investigations"
Dr. Paul Kirk
1953-1974, added deductive part of profiling
Teton & Jirsch
1970-1972
Formed BSU
ViCAP
Questionnaire, used by FBI for profiles, statistics
Times when Profiling didn't work
Atlanta Park Olympic Bombing, Unabomber, DC Sniper
Sociological Theory- Hirshi
Bonding, Attachment, Commitment, Involvement lead to norms, beliefs, values, mores, and folkways
Fiber of a Culture
Norms, beliefs, values, mores, folkways
Sociological Theory- Holmes & Holmes
Fractured Identity Syndrome from Direct or Indirect Trauma
Affective Disorder
Something that can easily be cured
Pathology
Disease with no known cure
Differential Association
You are who you associate with, explains multiple generations of criminality
Learning Theory
You learn criminal acts from criminal people
Labeling Theory
You are likely to become what people label you. as
Homicidal Triad
Cruelty to Animals, Fixation with Fire, Enuresis
Enuresis
Late onset of wetting the bed
Emile Durkheim
Two types of Suicide: Premeditated and Spontaneous
Biological Theory
Self-induced biological change/crime, alcohol or change in diet
Anomie
Feeling outside of the group, can lead to criminality
Abraham Marlow
Hierarchy of Needs: food= bottom, self actualization= top
Insitu
How the victim is found
Weston & Wells
What to know about victim: do they know offender, do the suspect anybody, do they have criminal history or history of reporting, did they have a weapon, do they have aggressive personality, subject to silent runs
Antemorten
Trauma before death
Perimortem
Trauma immediately preceding or at time of death
Postmortem
Trauma after death
Taphonomy
Anything between time of death and discovery, Postmortem interval, look at distance, location, intensity, and frequency
Arson
The burning of something of value without person's permission, usually male crime, 50/50 between adults and juveniles
7 Reasons for Arson
Revenge, concealment of another crime, malicious injury to property, excitement, fraud, eco-terrorism, pyromaniac
Crime Analyst
Read reports, makes exhibit for court, link analysis and time line, works backwards
Burglary
Property crime, the unlawful entering of a habitable building/structure for the purpose of committing another crime
Most common type of crime associated with Burglary
theft
Souvenirs
Things of emotional value, not usually missed, helps offender relive crime
Trophies
Something taken to show conquest over victim, gives offender empowerment
Juvenile Burglary
Usually for liquor, small items taken, back door entry, common to be excited during burglary
Adult Burglary
Usually for profit, usually during weekday with daylight and back door entry
Burglary Victim
Similar response to victim of rape
3 Approaches to Victm
Blitz, Con, and Surprise
Blitz Approach
Unpredictable, spontaneous, no impulse control, has intent from start
Con Approach
Act begins with intent, planned, premeditated
Surprise
Start with good intent and shift to overt act
Asocial
No planning, disorganized, no preparation, POS car, low impulse control, low intelligence
Nonsocial
Organized, smart, nice car, good impulse control, higher intelligence
Overt Act
Any step a person takes to put crime in motion
Victim Failure to Prosecute (VTFP)
Victim can report crime, but doesn't have to prosecute. Can't do this if victim is under 18
Agonal
Telemetry pads, sends vitals to hospital for doctor
Autopsy
Medical evaluation. 2 steps: gross external examination and autopsy- open body and look at internal organs, determine manner of death
Gross External Examination
Look at body, comb for trace evidence, collect samples, look for antemortem, perimortem, and postmortem evidence
Stippling
Tattooing, result of burning particles coming out of barrel of gun, around gun shot wound, no stippling if gun contacts skin
Charring
Burning from mussel of gun, flame comes out, helps determine distance
Blow Back of blood
Only get that with very close range shot
Postmortem Levitity
Blood pooling at lowest point on body after death
Branching
White, pressure where blood can't pool
One gun characteristic of suicide
Gun is always fully loaded
Evidence you always get from crime scene
Photos, sketch with measurements, notes
Power Reassurance Predator
Want to reestablish and maintain feelings of being masculine, very insecure person, Asocial, most common predator- 81-83%, least violent, usually no weapon, usually know victim, blitz attack
Power Assertive Predator
Overly confident, feels entitled, think victim wants it, Nonsocial, doesn't need reassurance, victim usually found in hospital/ needs ambulance, blitz or con attack
Anger Retaliatory Predator
Hates women, thinks they're disposable, extremely degrading verbally and physically, Asocial, doesn't care if victim dies, usually has wife, controlling, irregular discipline as child, blitz attack
Sadistic Predator
Rare, most dangerous doesn't want victim to live, Nonsocial, blends in very well, usually caught by accident, wants to see fear in victim, con attack
DNA evidence
1986 in Florida
Associative Evidence
Associate suspect with victim
Mass Murder
Killing a number of people in one episode, vent out of anger
Serial Killer
Killing 3 or more people in 3 or more different episodes with a cooling off period in between
2 Types of Serial Killers
Geographically stable and transient
5 Categories of Serial Killers
Visionaries, Mission, Hedonistic, Lust, Gain
Most prevalent Women Serial Killers
Angel of Mercy and Black Widow
Phases of Serial Killing
Fantasy, Stalking, Abduction, Kill, Disposal
Pedophiles
Perverse love of children, fantasy drives them, asocial
2 Common Characteristics of Pedophiles
Rationalization and denial
2 Categories of Pedophiles
Situational (repressed offender) and Preferential (mysoped/fixated offender)
Laws for 15 and younger
Can't give consent, if offender is at least 4 years older it's a crime
Laws for 15-18
If offender is at least 10 years older it's a crime, can't expose them to sexually explicit material
In Re Gault
Child can't be interrogated without a parent, but they can be interviewed
Police believe children because...
They are concrete thinkers and have trouble with time, distance, and sequence of events
Simmons Rule
Have to show victim photo lineup
Pornography
Deals with children, illegal
Adult Sexual Explicit Material
Deals with anyone over 18, not illegal
Case Controls
Empirical observations generally made at crime scene to later validate statement of a witness or suspect
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