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Exam 5 Lecture 6
Terms in this set (28)
characteristics of the individual and by characteristics of the individual's environment
development is affected by...
Good intellectual functioning. Appealing, sociable, easygoing disposition. Self-confidence, high self-esteem
Individual factors associated with positive outcomes:
Close relationship to caring parent figure. Authoritative parenting: warmth, structure, high expectations. Connections to extended, supportive family networks
Familial factors associated with positive outcomes
Bonds to caring adults outside of the family. Connections to positive organizations. Attending effective schools
Other factors associated with positive outcomes:
puberty marks the transition from concrete-operational thought to formal-operational thought.
other changes take place...
thought is centered on the present. children have difficulty anticipating future consequences
child's thoughts/actions more sensible. child's fears become based on reality, not fantasy. child's future plans become more realistic
the preadolescent shows an increasingly more realistic understanding of how the world works:
adolescents underestimate personal risk. adolescents are prone to mood wings, and emotions can overwhelm logic. frontal cortex, which regulates emotions, it last area to fully develop
however, thought is not fully matured during adolescence:
Neural "pruning" occurs throughout childhood and adolescence; adults have 41% fewer neurons than newborns. Causes unclear: "use it or lose it" or increase in efficiency?
other changes in the brain:
Adolescents tend to feel that they are constantly being observed by others (imaginary audience). Adolescents have an unrealistic sense of their own uniqueness (personal fable)
Some egocentric thinking lingers throughout adolescence:
Socialization: development of behavioral patterns consistent with societal norms. Development of a social identity. Relations with parents change, becomes a source of conflict. Relations with peers change, increases in importance.
Some aspects of social development:
Boys and girls are drawn to different types of toys and activities from a very young age; preferences do not appear to be learned.
Boys and girls tend to play differently, have different interests: to what extent re these differences innate or due to socialization?
T or F: gender socialization may be subtle and may begin at birth. Research shows that parents treat boys and girls differently without realizing it.
societies, over time
gender norms differ across...
express gender norms
parents, older siblings, influence how strongly children...
Child comes to recognize parents as human, and flawed. Child feels increasingly independent. Child becomes increasingly concerned with social status, fitting-in; the preadolescent is particularly suspectible to social conformity.
Social relations change during preadolescence:
To many adults, adolescents appear to be short sided, and act to senselessly reject parental and social values. Adolescence is a time of self-evaluation and decision-making. Its healthy for adolescent to explore change and try out new identities.
Relations begin to improve during
Conflicts most intense during
Conflicts most frequent during
Adolescence spend avg ----------- with others, most peer
identity and depression
Strife among adolescents is common, can lead to struggles with-----
less important late, conformity decreases
peer pressure becomes....
"storm and stress",
Adolescence known as a time of ------ because of mood swings, psychological stressors, and risky behaviors (substance abuse, eating disorders)
From mid-late adolescence, about ---- suffer major depression in given year
About------ suffer significant depression at least once during adolescence.
T or F- Despite popular belief, most adolescents don't describe life as rent by turmoil and chaos, most manage to keep stress in check.
This set is often in folders with...
Exam 5 Lecture 1
Exam 5 Lecture 3
Lecture 4 Exam 5
Lecture 2 Exam 5
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