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Public Health Final
Terms in this set (107)
How is public health defined?
"...the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting physical health and mental health and efficiency through organized community efforts"
What are the three core functions of public health?
Assessment, Policy development, Assurances
Enforce laws, link people with resources, assure a competent public health and personal workforce, and evaluate effectiveness.
Inform mobilizing and develop polices
Monitor and diagnosing
Six disciplines of P.H.
3. Biomedical Sciences
4. Environmental Health Science
5. Social and Behavioral Sciences
6. Health Policy and management
Emphasizes individual responsibility, minimal obligation to the common good, and the "fundamental freedom to all individuals to be left alone"
Suggest that minimal levels of income, basic housing, employment, education, and health care should be seen as fundamental rights.
What are controversial issues in PH?
-Mandated health insurance
-Access to reproductive care, contraceptives, and abortion
-Sex education in school
-Legalization of marijuana
What are PH responsibilities of the federal government?
1.Ensure all levels of government have the capabilities to provide essential public health services
2.Act when health threats may span more than one state, a region, or the entire nation
3.Act where the solutions may be beyond the jurisdiction of individual states
4.Act to assist the states when they lack the expertise or resources to effectively respond in a public health emergency (e.g., a disaster, bioterrorism, or an emerging disease)
5.Facilitate the formulation of public health goals (in collaboration with state and local governments and other relevant stakeholders)
What are PH responsibilities of the states?
1. Screening for diseases and conditions
2.Treatment for diseases
3.Technical assistance and training
4.State laboratory services
5.Epidemiology and surveillance
What are state and local health department governance?
1. Local/Decentralized—Local health departments are units led by local governments, which make most fiscal decisions.
2.Mixed—Some local health departments are led by state government, and some are led by local government. No one arrangement predominates in the state.
3.State/Centralized—All local health departments are units of state government, which makes most fiscal decisions.
4.Shared—All local health departments are governed by both state and local authorities.
What is the main assessment and epidemiology
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
What are the W's of descriptive epidemiology?
Who is getting the disease?
When did they get the disease?
Where is the disease occurring?
number of new cases
total number of existing cases
(two groups) Choose people who already have the disease. Choose a healthy group of individuals as similar as possible to cases. Interview them all and ask for their previous exposures. Advantages: faster and cheaper. Least accurate approach. Do not usually have a placebo
(one group) studies examine the relationship between diseases and other variables of interest as they exist in a defined population at a particular point in time
For situations when doing an intervention study would be unethical or too difficult. Considered the next most accurate. Choose a large number of health people, collect data on their exposures, and track outcomes over time. The only difference from intervention is that people choose their own exposures. They usually do not have a placebo
Start with two groups: experimental group (gets the intervention or exposure) and control group. Watch them over time and compare outcomes
Experimenter chooses who is in which group. Two groups should be as similar as possible so that intervention is the only difference. Considered the most valid research study design because they are likely to determine a cause and effect relationship.
the probability of finding an effect if there is, in fact, an affect.
the magnitude of the difference between groups
Low power studies (small sample size,), find no effect (or disease) when there actually is one
(one people want to hear) when the study finds an effect that is not real (when random variation appears to be a true effect)
emphasizing the philosophy that vaccination of the majority provides protection to the unvaccinated individuals.
What are the steps in the chain of infection
1. Pathogen: a virus, bacterium, or parasite that causes disease in humans
2.Reservoir: place where pathogen lives and multiplies.
3.Means of transmission: the way the pathogen travels from one host to another, or from reservoir to host.
4.Susceptible host: a host (individual) that can become infected with the pathogen.
Prevents an illness or injury from occurring at all by preventing exposure to the risk factors
Seeks to minimize the severity of the illness or the damage due to an injury-causing events after the event HAS occurred.
Seeks to minimize disability by providing medical care and rehabilitation services
The agent is the cause of the disease.
Hosts are organisms, usually humans or animals, which are exposed to and harbor a disease. The host can be the organism that gets sick, as well as any animal carrier (including insects and worms) that may or may not get sick.
The environment is the favorable surroundings and conditions external to the host that cause or allow the disease to be transmitted.
An increase in the frequency of a disease above the usual and expected rate
A widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a community at a particular time
is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, a chemical or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent.
the time from infection to infectiousness. Which is shorter depends on the disease
the numbers that describe the health of populations and the science that helps to interpret those numbers
are used to describe the variety and frequency of past outcome sunder similar conditions as a way of predicting what should happen in the future.
expressed the probability that the observed result could have occurred by chance alone
a method of testing for and detecting diseases early
A situation in which the effect or association between an exposure and outcome is distorted by the presence of another variable
put raw numbers into perspective by relating them to the size of the population to be considered
Means of transmission
oTouching contaminated object and putting hands to mouth, nose, or eyes
oContaminated water or food: Fecal-oral route
The reduction of disease incidence, prevalence, morbidity or mortality to a locally acceptable level as a result of deliberate efforts; continued intervention measures are required to maintain the reduction. Example: diarrheal diseases.
Elimination of disease
Reduction to zero of the incidence of a specified disease in a defined geographical area as a result of deliberate efforts; continued intervention measures are required. Example: neonatal tetanus.
Elimination of infections
Reduction to zero of the incidence of infection caused by a specific agent in a defined geographical area as a result of deliberate efforts; continued measures to prevent re-establishment of transmission are required. Example: measles, poliomyelitis.
Permanent reduction to zero of the worldwide incidence of infection caused by a specific agent as a result of deliberate efforts; intervention measures are no longer needed. Example: smallpox.
The specific infectious agent no longer exists in nature or in the laboratory.
The Health Belief Model
model for explaining how beliefs may influence behaviors
beliefs about the effectiveness of taking action to reduce risk or seriousness
potential negative consequences of changing the behavior
individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, public policy
precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance -relapse
Continuing education or licensure exams for public health workers would be an example activity for which of the following fucntions of public health?
Contact training (interviewing people about everyone that they've has sexual contact or any contact with) would be an example activity of which of the following core functions of oublic healhth?
Vaccinating someone against a disease would be an example of stopping the chain of infection at which link?
Prescribing an antibiotic for a pathogen would be an example of stopping the chain of infection at which link?
The statistical term describes the probability of finding an effect if there is, in fact, an effect
This means of transmission of an infectious agent is particularly concerning due to the increase in bioterrism.
This public health discipline is described as: preventing the spread of diease through the wayer, food, air, and other componets of the surrounding physical enviroment.
You go to the doctor because you have the influenza virus (flu). Your doctor would be correct in perscribing you an:
Dr. Mac's hometown, Miami, is an infectious disease hotspot due to all the international travel. The city of Miami has a population od 6,158,824. Durring the Zika outbreak in 2017 there were a total number of 217 cases(people) in Miami who became infected with Zika. The number of new cases of Zika in Miami in 2017 is called the:
All of the following are types of infectious agents except:
What are the "W" questions of descriptive Epidemiology?
All the local health departments function as units of the state goverment is a descripiton of which of the following governace classification system?
The main assessment and epidemiological agency for the United States is:
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
secondary prevention seeks to:
Minimize the severity of the illness or the damage due to an ingury causeing event after the event has occured
This type of systematic error may be common in studies examining embarrassing or socailly unacceptable behaviors:
Anual mammograms for women over 40 years old of age and older to screen for brest cancer
Putting a patient diagnosed with cancer on Chemotherapy treatment
Michelle Obama "lets move" campaign which was designed to get kids to be more phisically active and eat healthier
You are studding a rare genetic illness that only affects a small percentage of the population. The best study design for you to choose would be a:
T/F Most public health studies are not observational due to ethical or feasibliity.
You are studding a new emerging illness and you need to learn information about this diease very quickly! What wpuld be a poor study design to choose?
Prospective Cohort study
Im getting ready to do a study on social media networks and obesity. I recruit two groups, one of obease participants and one group of similar participants who are healthy weight. What type of study is this?
Im getting ready to do a study on social media networks and obesity. I recruit a large, represenative sample of the population knowing nothing about their social networks or their obesity status when I invite them for participation. What type of study is this?
Im getting ready to do a study on social media networks and obesity. I recruit a large group od heathly weight adults, making sure no one in my study is obease (yet). What type of study is this?
I've designed a Facebook-based social network campaign to help prevent obesity in high risk socail groups. I want to test the effectiveness of my campaign by comparing the development of obesity in two groups, one group who was exposed to my campaign on Facebook and one group who wasn't. What type of study is this?
T/F In the Transtheoretical Model people can move both forward and backwards through stages or readiness to make a health-related behavior change.
T/F The number of motor vehicles on the road has increased and so have the number of motor vehicle fatalities in the United States.
T/F Poisoning is the leading cause of Injury death in the United States.
T/F Federal funding are used to pay for the elective abortions performed at planned parent hood.
T/F Dietary behaviors are difficult to change because of the social, cultural, and ecnomical factors that influence the way we eat.
T/F Only 5 percent of Americans eat the recommended amount of servings from all groups.
T/F The United States is leading the world in maternal and child health and has the lowest infant mortality rate globally.
What is a construct included in many models behavior change that describes an indivual's feelings of control over their behavior?
This construct within the health belief model considers a person's perceptions about how likely it is that something really bad will happen to them if they get this illiness/engage in this health-related behavior:
Dr. McInvale likes to post information about opportunities to engage in health-related behaviors on campus, like free flu shots or HIV/STD testing. Her post on OAKS about these are opportunities is an example of which constuct from the health-belief model?
Cues to action
The 3 "E's" of injury prevention are?
Education, Engineering, Enforcement
Automakers designing cars that make an annoying dinging sound until the driver and passangers buckle their seatbelts is an example of which "E" to reduce automobile related injuries?
Vulnerable road users include all of the following except:
c. Bus Drivers
d. Motorcycle drivers
What is the number one actual leading cause of death in the United States?
What is the addictive chemical in Cigarettes?
The health-related indicator most commonly used to characterize the health of a nation is the:
Infant mortality rate
which of the following is not one of three leading causes of death in infants in the United States?
The fairness doctrine, in its efforts to combat the use of tabacco in the US, stipulated that:
TV advertisements for cigarettes had to be bnalanced by the public service announcements about the dangers of tabacco use.
In 1922 the Environmental protection agency issued a report Second hand smoking warming that:
Breathing in second hand smoke was carcinogenic
Sin-taxes on cigarettes have been found to be effective in discouraging smoking in all of the following populations exect:
Based on the CDC data, states that have higher rates of firearm ownership have higher/lower rates of firearm deaths.
All of the following are examples of using regulation to promote public health except:
Sex Education in schools
According to "Fed Up" and our class discussion, added sugars are found in % of the foods sold in US grocery stores.
You want to do cross-sectional study looking at the relationship between self-esteem and e-cigarettes. Which of the following groups would be best to recruit for participation in your study?
A large group of adults, knowing nothing about their e-cig use
You want to do a prospective cohort study looking at the relationship between self-esteem and e-cigarettes. Which of the following groups would be best to recruit for participation in your study?
A large group of healthy adults where no one is currently using e-cigs.
You are conducting a study on Brest cancer and oral contraceptives. You recruit 350 women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer before the age of 45 and 350 women of the same age who do not have breast cancer. You ask them about their past use of oral contraceptives. What type of study is this?
You are conducting a study on exercise and heart disease. You telephone a representative same opf the residence in Charleston asked them how much they exercise each week and wheather they currently have or have ever been diagnosed with heart disease. What type of stdy is this?
You want to study whether sheepskin condoms are effective in preventing the transmission of Gonorrhea. You recruit 200 prostitutes to participate in your study and provide half of them woth sheepskin condoms and the other half with latex condoms. You will follow them over time to see if they develop Gonorrhea. What type of study is this?
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