Culture & Society Ch. 15

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Terms in this set (...)

Prayer
Religious speech or thought through which believers transmit messages to spirit beings.
Secret Societies
Organizations that control the use of special objects used in religious rituals
Sacred Rituals
Activities, places, or objects that are connected to the spirit realm and are imbued with power.
Mana
A force, power, or essence that endows people, animals, other living things, and possibly inanimate objects with special qualities or powers
Diviners
People with the power to predict the future through messages and omens from the spirit world
Religious Speech
Invocations, prayers, prophecies, songs of praise, and curses that are powerful means of transmitting messages about the world and also creating the world
Healers
Religious practitioners who acquire spirit power to diagnose the spirit cause of illness and effect cures
funerary rites
Rituals performed to mark a person's death and passage to the afterworld.
Prophets
Religious leaders who receive divine inspiration, often in a vision or trance.
Animatism
Belief that all things are endowed with some spirit form or essence.
Shamans
Part-time religious practitioners who make contact with the spirit world through prayer, ritual, and trance.
Revivalistic Movements
Revitalization movements focused on bringing back cultural and religious practices that express core values that have been largely abandoned.
Totemism
Belief system in which people believe they are the descendants of spirit beings.
Sacrifice
Offerings made to spirit beings to show gratitude and honor.
Messianic Movements
Revitalization movements stressing the role of a prophet or messiah as a savior for people.
Contagious Magic
Magic that operates on the principle that positive and negative qualities can be transferred through proximity or contact.
Spirit Possession
Belief that spirits can enter a body and take over a person's thoughts and actions.
Puberty Rites
Rituals performed to mark the passage of an individual from childhood to adulthood; also called initiation rites.
Calendric Rites
Ceremonies performed at specific times during the year, for example, agricultural rituals performed for planting, growing, and harvesting crops.
Nativistic movements
Revitalization movements attempting to rid society of foreign elements and return to what is conceived to be a prior state of culturalpurity.
Cosmology
Religious worldview of a people, including beliefs about the origin of the world, the pantheon of deities that exist, and their relationships to the spirit realm
Fundamentalism
A term coined in the United States in 1920 meaning a commitment to do battle to defend traditional religious beliefs.
Polytheism
Belief in the existence of numerous deities that have specific attributes, powers, and functions
priests
Full-time religious practitioners who lead a religious organization and officiate at rituals but are not expected to be able to communicate directly with the spirit world.
Animism
belief in the existence of souls
Religion
Thoughts, actions, and feelings based on belief in the existence of spirit beings and supernormal (or superhuman) forces.
proselytism
The attempt to convert a person or group from one religion to another.
millenarian movements
Revitalization movements incorporating apocalyptic themes, prophesying an abrupt end to the world as we know it, leading to the establishment of a new way of life or form of existence.
Rituals
Activities, including religious speech, ceremonies, and behaviors, that are demonstrations of belief
Imitative magic
Magic that operates on the principle of "like causes like."
Mediums
People having special gifts to make contact with the spirit world, often in a state of trance
Cargo Cults
Revitalization movements arising in Melanesia in the early twentieth century with the aim of obtaining material wealth through magical means.
Rites of renewal
Rituals performed with the goal of renewing the bounty of the earth.