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100 terms

Path II- Integumentary Glossary Terms

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Acantholysis
loss of cohesion between keratinocytes caused by the breakdown of intercellular bridges.
Acanthosis
thickening of the spinous cell layer (stratum spinosum) of the epidermis.
Acral
distal parts of the extremities
Alopecia
hair loss
Anagen
phase of hair cycle in which hair synthesis takes place.
Anaplasia
lack of cellular differentiation and organization, a feature of neoplastic cells.
Angioedema
vascular reaction involving the deep dermis or subcutis and consisting of edema manifested as giant wheals and caused by dilation and increased permeability of capillaries (deeper version of urticaria).
Apoptosis
programmed cell death.
Atrophy
reduction in size of a cell, tissue, organ, or part.
Ballooning degeneration
marked intracellular fluid accumulation in the cells of the epidermis.
Blister (vesicle or bulla)
localized collection of fluid usually in or beneath the epidermis. Bulla: large blister (≥1.0 cm).
Carcinoma in situ
a malignant neoplasm of epithelial origin that has not invaded through the basement membrane.
Catagen
transition phase of the hair cycle between growth and resting phases.
Cellulitis
an acute bacterial infection of the dermis and subcutis that spreads to surrounding soft tissues and is characterized by erythema, warmth, swelling, and pain. The source of the infection is most often a penetrating wound in the area of infection. Cellulitis can also cause fever and enlarged lymph nodes.
Comedo (pl., comedones)
plug of follicular stratum corneum and dried sebum in a hair follicle that leads to follicular distention.
Cornification
production of stratum corneum by terminal epidermal differentiation.
Crust
material formed by drying of exudate or secretion on the skin surface.
Cytokines
small molecular weight protein molecules (generally <30 kD) that are mediators of inflammation and growth.
Dematiaceous
naturally pigmented black or brown mycelium or conidium.
Dermatitis
inflammation of the skin
Dermatophytosis
infection of the stratum corneum of the epidermis, hair, or claws with fungi of the genera Microsporum, Epidermophyton, or Trichophyton.
Dermatosis
noninflammatory lesion of the skin.
Detritus
dandruff
Dyskeratosis
abnormal, premature, or imperfect keratinization.
Dysplasia
abnormal development;; term may be used in association with a congenital or inherited developmental anomaly or in association with an abnormality in maturation of cells within a tissue.
Effluvium
shedding of hair
Elastosis
degeneration of dermal connective tissue leading to accumulation of elastotic fibers;; sometimes seen with solar dermatitis
Epidermal collarette
peripheral expanding ring of scale
Epidermitis
inflammation of the epidermis
Epidermolysis
separation of the epidermis from the dermis
Epidermotropic/Epitheliotropic
having a predilection to enter the epidermis or other epithelial structures as seen with cutaneous T cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides).
Erosion
loss of all or part of the thickness of the epidermis.
Eruption
rapid development of skin lesion associated with redness.
Erythema
redness of skin caused by congestion of capillaries
Excoriation
superficial loss of epidermal layers caused by physical trauma (scratching).
Exfoliation
shedding of layers or scales.
Exogen
the stage of the hair cycle where old hairs are shed.
Exudate
fluid, cells, or debris from blood vessels deposited in or on other tissues
Fissure
cleft or groove
Folliculitis
inflammation of a hair follicle.
Furuncle
circumscribed, painful nodule (accumulation of pus) in the dermis secondary to follicular rupture
Furunculosis
rupture of follicles usually caused by inflammation, distention, and/or trauma leading to entry of follicular contents into the dermis.
Genodermatosis
a genetically determined disorder of the skin
Glabrous
smooth skin, hairless skin
Hamartoma
a localized, tumor-like malformation of mature cells and tissues that includes normal components of the organ in which the hamartoma arises but that is disorganized, present in excess, and sometimes larger than normal. Usually, one tissue element predominates (e.g., follicular hamartoma, vascular hamartoma). A hamartoma is not a true neoplasm because it involves the proliferation of more than one cell type and often includes the development of complex structures such as arteries or follicles
Hydropic degeneration
intracellular fluid accumulation in cells of the basal epidermis
Hyperkeratosis
histologic term for thickening of stratum corneum.
Hyperplasia
increase in the number of normal cells.
Hypoplasia
incomplete development
Hypotrichosis
less hair than normal
Ichthyosis
congenital skin disorder in which the skin is thickened by scales (hyperkeratosis) that can crack into plates resembling fish scales
Impetigo
bacterial dermatitis characterized by pustules
Indolent
slow growing, a term applied to persistent ulcers on the lips of cats, and sometimes incorrectly called "rodent ulcer," a term from the human literature used to refer to ulcerated basal cell carcinoma
Indurated
Hardening of the skin as a result of inflammation or fibrosis
Interface
inflammation arranged in a layer close to and often obscuring the epidermal-dermal junction (interface), and with vacuolated (hydropic degeneration) and sometimes apoptotic basal cells;; the inflammation can be mild (cell poor) or extensive (cell rich)
Intertrigo
dermatitis that develops because of friction between apposing skin surfaces (e.g., adjacent folds)
Keratinocytes
the epidermal cells that synthesize keratin and comprise more than 90% of epidermal cells
Kerion
an intense focal folliculitis usually caused by a dermatophyte infection
Langerhans' cells
intraepidermal dendritic antigen-presenting cells
Lichenification
thickening of skin with accentuation of skin creases caused by marked acanthosis
Lichenoid
confusing term that generally refers to a dense zone of dermal inflammation parallel to the epidermis usually without basal cell injury
Lichenoid dermatosis
the conventional term for uncommon to rare, often idiopathic, single or grouped papules, plaques, or papillomatous foci covered by scale, and histologically composed of epidermal hyperplasia, lichenoid lymphoplasmacytic dermal inflammation, hyperkeratosis, and parakeratosis. The term dermatitis is probably better than dermatosis as inflammation is present in these lesions
Macule
flat, circumscribed lesion of altered skin color
Melanin
the dark granular pigment produced by melanocytes that is responsible for the brown coloration of hair, skin, and other tissues such as the iris and choroid of the eye
Melanophage
macrophage containing ingested melanin
Merkel cell
a neuroendocrine cell found in the stratum basale
Mucin
glycosaminoglycan (GAG), a normal component of the intercellular ground substance of the dermis, consists of protein bound to hyaluronic acid
Mycelium
a mass of hyphae
Mycetoma
a slowly progressive infection of the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue, fascia, and sometimes underlying bone caused by traumatic implantation of actinomycetes (actinomycotic mycetoma) or fungi (eumycotic mycetoma)
Myxedema
nonpitting edema of the skin because of abnormal deposits of mucin in the dermis
Necrotizing fasciitis
an acute serious life-threatening subtype of cellulitis usually caused by streptococcal bacterial infection and toxin production, and located within the subcutaneous fat and fascial planes. The clinical lesions are painful, hot, and swollen areas with extensive exudation and necrosis. The condition can progress rapidly and result in systemic shock
Nevus
circumscribed malformation of the skin assumed to be of congenital or inherited origin, and consisting of any component of the skin. The term "hamartoma" is preferred to nevus to avoid confusion with the pigmented nevus (mole) that arises in the skin of humans
Nodule
a circumscribed, solid elevation of skin (≥1 cm).
Onychodystrophy
abnormal formation of the claw.
Onychomadesis
sloughing of claws
Panniculitis
inflammation of subcutaneous adipose tissue
Papule
circumscribed, solid elevation of skin (<1 cm)
Parakeratosis
retention of pyknotic nuclei in epidermal cells of the stratum corneum
Paronychia
inflammation of skin around the claws
Pautrier's microabscess
a localized intraepidermal collection of neoplastic lymphocytes characteristic of epitheliotropic lymphoma (mycosis fungoides)
Pemphigus
a group of cutaneous diseases associated with blistering
Phaeohyphomycosis
mycotic disease caused by pigmented fungi (dematiaceous fungi) of a variety of genera and species that do not form sclerotic bodies or granules
Pigmentary incontinence
melanin pigment within dermal macrophages or free in the dermis developing via injury to pigment containing basal layer cells
Plaque
a flat-topped, solid elevation in the skin that occupies a relatively large surface area in comparison with its height (≥1 cm).
Pruritus
itching
Pustule
small, circumscribed accumulation of pus within the epidermis or within a hair follicle
Pyoderma
pyogenic (pus-producing) bacterial infection of the skin
Rodent ulcer
a term used in human medicine to define an ulcerative basal cell carcinoma; sometimes used inappropriately in veterinary medicine to refer to an indolent ulcer affecting the lip of cats.
Scale
a thin, platelike accumulation of stratum corneum on the surface of skin
Seborrhea
nonspecific term for clinical signs of scaling, crusting, and greasiness. Primary seborrhea is a more specific term applied to inherited cornification disorders
Sebum
secretion of sebaceous glands
Spongiosis
intercellular edema, which, by widening of the intercellular space and stretching of the "intercellular bridges," creates a sponge-like appearance to the epidermis
Telogen
resting phase of the hair cycle
Ulcer
loss of epidermis and at least the superficial portion of dermis
Urticaria
usually transient vascular reaction in the upper dermis consisting of edema manifested clinically as wheals (hives);; a more superficial version of angioedema
Vesicle
small blister within the epidermis or at or below the dermal-epidermal interface (<1.0 cm)
Vibrissa
long, coarse hair located about the nose (sinus hair, tactile hair).
Vitiligo
acquired disorder characterized by circumscribed areas of depigmentation in the skin.
Wheal
smooth, circumscribed, slightly elevated area on skin caused by dermal edema
Yeast
unicellular budding fungus.