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PSY 321 Final Prep.
Terms in this set (49)
Which of the following is the BEST definition of "discrimination?"
Unequal treatment of different people based on the groups or categories to which they belong
According to the textbook, is competition something that exists across the world, in all known cultures, or are there cultures that are completely peaceful?
There are a number of culture where no competition exists at all - among adults or children.
Jennifer is a student at UCLA. When asked to describe the average UCLA student, she says it is almost impossible to do so because "there are so many different kinds of people at UCLA; the diversity is really amazing." By contrast, when asked to describe the average USC student, Jennifer says: "That's easy; they're all almost exactly the same." Social psychologists would say that Jennifer is displaying what is known as the ______.
outgroup homogeneity bias
In the contemporary U.S., in general, ______ have the highest levels of self-esteem; followed by ______, followed by ______.
blacks; whites; minorities other than blacks
Suppose that Ms. J. is a third-grade teacher. In her classroom, she requires that students study together in small, multi-ethic workgroups, in which each group member is responsible for collecting and communicating to fellow group members a different type of information. It appears that Ms. J. is using the cooperative learning technique known as ______.
the jigsaw classroom
Research on prejudice and self-esteem suggests that ______.
People may uphold prejudices, in part, because doing so bolsters their self-esteem.
Suppose that some people have just been randomly assigned to two different teams. Research suggests that these people would be likely to exhibit discriminatory behavior (favoring the ingroup, and disfavoring the outgroup) ______.
immediately, as soon as the groups had been defined
The so-called "minimal group effect" MOST directly suggests that ______.
people are predisposed to divide the world into "us" and "them," and to show a preference for "us"
According to the textbook, there is/are ______ known peaceful societies in the world.
According to the textbook, there are a number of contemporary societies that are completely peaceful, and d not have any form of competition or intergroup strife. On the downside, however, these societies tend to ______.
be unsuccessful in economic and political terms
Mark is a Southern gentleman. He always stands up when a woman enters the room and offers her his chair. He is quick to get the doors for his female companions, and he always pays when they go out. Mark probably scores high on ______.
You have just accused a friend of yours of being sexist because he said that most women don't know anything about cars. If your friend is like MOST people, then the next thing he is likely to say is along the lines of ______.
"But women are amazing knowledgeable about other things."
Based on the textbook's definition of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination, which of the following statements is most accurate?
A stereotype can be positive or negative.
According to realistic group conflict theory, white people should show the MOST prejudice against minority groups when ______.
the economy is doing poorly, and whites feel as though they are competing with minorities for a scarce supply of jobs
As discussed in the textbook, stereotyping is BEST thought of as a(n) ______.
consequence of the human tendency for social categorization
Research suggests that, at least in business, the two traits that characterize successful leaders are ______.
modesty and persistence
A group is especially prone to develop groupthink if ______.
there is a strong, directive group leader
The term ______. refers to a process by which members of a small group remember different kinds of information.
Rohit is a very good golfer when he is alone, and an excellent golfer when he is with others. In the language of social facilitation theory, playing golf well appears to be a(n) ______.
Which of the following is NOT typically a trait found among successful leaders?
willingness to cut corners to get ahead
People sometimes punish those who cheat the system, even when they need to make sacrifices or suffer losses to do so. According to the text, this phenomenon is known as ______.
It would be MOST accurate to say that "groups are smarter than individuals" when ______.
individual group members work independently and all make contributions
Jonah is really worried about playing the piano at his recital in front of his girlfriend, who has expressed a desire to be at the recital. Jonah keeps thinking about her instead of concentrating on playing his music. Which of the three processes that influences social facilitation does this scenario MOST emphasize?
After decades of research on the effect that others have on task performance, social psychologists have concluded that the presence of others ______.
has mixed effects, because it elicits a person's dominant response
A research study concluded that high-performing executives added an average of ______ to the value of their company, as compared with average performers.
Which of the following is NOT one of the three characteristics typical of dangerous leaders, as listed in your text?
Which of the following did your text present as an example of a toxic leader?
Self-censorship is associated with ______.
John is taking part in a student protest, marching across police lines into an important administrative building on campus. He is so wrapped up in the group mentality that he actually stops thinking about himself as an individual who is separate from the group, and fails to ask himself whether or not he is behaving responsibly. John is probably experiencing ______.
High-power people tend to ______.
think outside the box
Kirby thinks that her professor is tremendously smart and knows a lot. Which element of source credibility is this?
Well-educated and analytical people (as opposed to poorly-educated and non-educated people) are more responsive to arguments based on logic and reason.
Suppose that you are a tenth-grade teacher, with an upcoming course module on the health risks of unprotected sex. Which individual would probably be the BEST guest speaker for your course - in terms of their ability to persuade students to act responsibly and actually impact students' behavior?
A high school dropout who became pregnant and contracted an STD at the age of 16, and who now sorely regrets her irresponsible sexual behavior.
If you look at a pinpoint of light in a dark room, the light appears to move even though it is in fact stationary. This illusion of movement is called the ______ effect.
The fast-approaching-deadline technique is a persuasive technique based upon the principle of ______.
The so-called foot-in-the-door technique is MOST related, conceptually speaking, to ______.
the idea of cognitive dissonance
Social psychologists use the term "convert communicator" to refer to ______.
people who persuade others by arguing against their own previously-held attitudes and behaviors
Two types of situations tend to produce informational influence: ______.
ambiguous situations and crisis situations
Suppose that Frank has relatively low self-esteem, but that his friend Omar has relatively high self-esteem. And suppose that the two friends are approached by a local political group, which attempts to educate them about its causes and persuade them to sign several petitions. Given the research on self-esteem and persuasion, what can we expect?
Omar will be more open to talking with the group, but Frank should be more inclined to sign on with them.
The limited-number technique is based upon the principle of ______.
Mark has been attending a religious study with friends from his dorm. He really likes these people, although he thinks that their interpretation of the sacred text is dead wrong. Yet in the meetings, he tends to agree with them to avoid conflict because he enjoys their friendship so much. Mark is most likely experiencing ______.
Many have argued that Milgram's classic research on obedience to authority was unethical. Indeed, Milgram's research provided much of the impetus for the implementation of ethics committees and research review boards in universities. Why? What was the chief complaint?
Participants could have experienced intense, long-term emotional, or psychological trauma.
The classic studies on obedience to an authority figure were conducted in 1963 by the psychologist ______.
Which group is easiest to persuade?
moderately intelligent people with moderate self-esteem
In some military prisons, soldiers use, among other tactics, both sleep deprivation and repeated exposure to annoying music, in an effort to "break" prisoners' resistance and convince them to answer questions. These soldiers are apparently operating under the assumption that ______ makes people more yielding.
a reduction of stockpiled resources
Which conditions, when compared, provide a good test of Zajonc's theory?
Alone compared to both audience conditions for the easy and difficult tasks.
Which conditions provide a good test of Cottrell's theory?
Attentive audience and inattentive audience conditions for the easy task.
Overall, the difficult task was performed more slowly than the easy task. Which theorists would be happy with this result?
Participants performed the easy task faster but the more difficult task slower when a confederate was present in the room. Furthermore, it did not matter whether the other person was paying attention to the performance or whether the other person just happened to be in the room working on another task. Which theory(ies) is this result consistent with?
Zajonc and Cottrell
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