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Social Psychology Exam 3 Terms
Terms in this set (76)
When members of a society respect and follow its rules.
Rule of Law
The obligation to return in kind what another has done for us.
Standards established by society to tell its members what types of behavior are typical or expected.
The idea that each person receives benefits in proportion to what he or she contributes.
The idea that everyone gets the same amount, regardless of what he or she contributes.
Interpersonal concern about the consequences of outperforming others.
Sensitivity about being the target of a threatening upward comparison
Getting less than you deserve.
Getting more than you deserve.
Feeling bad for having lived through a terrible experience in which many others died.
When each person does his or her part, and together they work toward a common goal.
A game that forces people to choose between cooperation and competition.
An interaction in which both participants can win (or lose).
A situation in which one person's gain is another's loss.
Ceasing to feel angry toward or seek retribution against someone who has wronged you.
Following orders from an authority figure.
Going along with the crowd.
The evolutionary tendency to help people who have our genes.
What a helper seeks to increase his or her own welfare by helping another.
When a helper seeks to increase another's welfare and expects nothing in return.
Reacting to another person's emotional state by experiencing the same emotional state.
The idea that empathy motivates people to reduce other people's distress, as by helping or comforting.
The idea that empathy triggers the need for social reward (e.g., praise, honor, pride) that can be gained by helping.
Empathy-specific reward hypothesis
The idea that empathy triggers the fear of social punishment (e.g., guilt, shame, censure) that can be avoided by helping
Empathy-specific punishment hypothesis
The idea that people help others in order to relieve their own distress.
*Negative state relief hypothesis
The assumption that life is essentially fair, that people generally get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
*Belief in a just world
The finding that people are less likely to offer help when they are in a group than when they are alone.
Looking to others for cues about how to behave, while they are looking to you; collective misinterpretation.
The reduction in feeling responsible that occurs when others are present.
*Diffusion of responsibilty
Failure to help in front of others for fear of feeling like a fool if one's offer of help is rejected.
A planned, long-term, nonimpulsive decision to help others.
Any behavior intended to harm another person who is motivated to avoid the harm.
Any behavior that intentionally harms another person who is physically present.
Any behavior that intentionally harms another person who is physically absent.
"Hot," impulsive, angry behavior that is motivated by a desire to harm someone.
"Cold," premeditated, calculated harmful behavior that is a means to some practical or material end.
Aggression that has as its goal extreme physical harm, such as injury or death.
Behavior that either damages interpersonal relationships or is culturally undesirable.
An innate (inborn, biologically programmed) tendency to seek a particular goal, such as food, water, or sex.
In Freudian theory, the constructive, life-giving instinct.
In Freudian theory, the destructive, death instinct.
Observing and copying or imitating the behavior of others.
Proposal that "the occurrence of aggressive behavior always presupposes the existence of frustration," and "the existence of frustration always leads to some form of aggression."
Blockage of or interference with a personal goal.
The tendency to perceive ambiguous actions by others as aggressive.
*Hostile attribution bias
The tendency to perceive social interactions in general as being aggressive.
*Hostile perception bias
The tendency to assume that people will react to potential conflicts with aggression.
*Hostile expectation bias
A response to stress that involves aggressing against others or running away.
*Fight or flight syndrome
A response to stress that involves nurturing others and making friends.
*Tend and befriend syndrome
Violence that occurs within the home or family, between people who have a close relationship with each other.
Domestic violence (family violence, intimate-partner violence)
The increase in aggression that occurs as a result of the mere presence of a weapon.
The male sex hormone, high levels of which have been linked to aggression and violence in both animals and humans.
The "feel good" neurotransmitter, low levels of which have been linked to aggression and violence in both animals and humans.
According to Malaysian culture, refers to behavior of a young man who becomes "uncontrollably" violent after receiving a blow to his ego.
A society that places high value on individual respect, strength, and virtue, and accepts and justifies violent action in response to threats to one's honor.
*Culture of honor
A state of disgrace or loss of self-respect (or of respect from others).
Not telling the truth.
A sense of anonymity and loss of individuality, as in a large group, making people especially likely to engage in antisocial behaviors such as theft.
Social standards that prescribe what people ought to do.
Norms that specify what most others approve or disapprove of.
Norms that specify what most people do.
Anything that draws two or more people together, making them want to be together and possibly to form a lasting relationship.
A situation in which other people have come to like you, respect you, approve of you, and include you in their groups and relationships.
Being prevented by others from forming or keeping a social bond with them; the opposite of acceptance.
Rejection (social exclusion)
The desire to form and maintain close, lasting relationships with other individuals.
*Need to belong
What people actively do to try to make someone like them.
The ability to change one's behavior for different situations.
The proposition that people tend to pair up with others who are equally attractive.
The proposition that people and animals will perform behaviors that have been rewarded more than they will perform other behaviors.
Being near someone on a regular basis.
The idea that a partner's annoying habits become more annoying over time.
*Social allergy effect
The assumption that physically attractive people will be superior to others on many other traits.
*What is beautiful is good effect
Being excluded, rejected, and ignored by others.
A tendency to expect rejection from others and to become hypersensitive to possible rejection.
The painful feeling of wanting more human contact or connection than you have.
The idea that one person who breaks the rules can inspire other people to break the rules also.
Bad apple effect
A situation in which one person love another but the other does not return that love.
Persisting in romantic, courtship, or other behaviors that frighten and harass the rejecter in a relationship.
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