Terrorism, Test 2
Terms in this set (107)
the result of doublespeak
Another term for euphemism
Discipline of communication where Euphemism fall
Overseas Contingency Operations
GWOT (Global War on Terrorism)
What insiders use to communicate difficult difficult ideas to each other
Having to do with language or vocabulary
People after whom particular words are named
To disassociate oneself from (others or situations)
Movement motivated by semantic transparency
Plain Language Movement
Having to do with language or transparency
Enhanced Interrogation Technique
Vagueness of meaning in language
a word that has multiple related meanings or senses
Murder or assassination, according to the CIA
Speakers must agree on the rules of the game before communicating
Vagueness in a word or phrase
The practice of deliberately preventing the facts or full details of something from becoming known.
Euphemism for terrorism
Government by the tongue
Clarity in language
Language used to distort or reverse the meanings of words
synonym for Euphemistic
friendly or less offensive expression
Arbitrary deprivation of life
the process of creating memes with the purpose of changing the behavior of people
occurs between people of the same generation
the period during which a conspicuous change takes places within the behavior or outlook of a population
people who already share the same grumbles, objections, and attributional characteristics of the movement
When violent domestic conflicts spill into other states, becoming international
from parent to child
a substitution of a friendly or less offensive expression for one that implies something unpleasant or offensive to the listener
phrasing employed by people to dissociate themselves from a statement, either to elude thinking about the topic or to detach themselves from its content
The UN lingo for their diplomats
Effects of Terrorism: Euphemisms
Euphemists may argue that they help the international community by alleviating the fear of what is going on out there (e.g., the audience may experience less psychological disturbance). Nevertheless, with euphemisms, the audience would also lack understanding of what terrorism really is, which might hurt the audience in the long term.
refers to three or more individuals working together for the purpose of completing a task.
a process involving significant change in an individual's or group's orienting beliefs and motivations
the individual is going through times when he or she is the most vulnerable in the second stage of small group radicalization
Third stage of small group radicalization; refers to the process of adopting extremist positions and engaging in violence based on a new set of beliefs.
Four factors that trigger the adoption of extremist viewpoints
Signal Events, declining social control, differential association, and indoctrination of and identification with the ideology
Four Models of Recruitment
Net, funnel, infection, and seed
Everyone is a possible recruit in the group
Large amounts of recruits start together and through training are streamlined into a select few
A person is placed within a group to gain recruits through personal appeals; uses source credibility, social comparison and validation, and custom-made appeals
Recruiters offer a context for self-recruitment
Symbolic Convergence Theory
Bormann - Groups unite around stories and group fantasies that are co-created and shared.
Based on powerful controlling tactics and central organizational decision making; opens the organization to extreme aggression through polarization and groupthink
Follow-on Terrorist Leadership
passing of terrorist leadership from father to son
Leadership that relies on divine-like personal traits and power
Pattern of connections developed by the flow of messages between communicators through space and time
Clandestine Cell Structure
a method for organizing a unit in such a way that it can more efficiently resist invasions by an opposing group; can be either strict hierarchy or evenly distributed and terrorists work covertly to maintain secrecy and omnipresence
Lone Wolf Terrorism
perpetrated by individuals, typically not financed by any outside group and with no organizational structure to answer to
Diffusion of Innovations
The notion that trends, rather than emerging independently through invention, proliferate from one society to another through various types of contact and communication; 4 elements are innovation, communication channel, time, and social system
DoI, Terrorism, and Social Movement Theory
The most successful movements in recruiting activists and supporters and in their ability to survive under repressive circumstances over a long period of time are those that create powerful ideas—ideas that resonate with a specific cultural and historical context
Self-replicating pools of nefarious information, leaping from mind to mind and searching for receptive or vulnerable hosts through which more replication can occur.
Emulating others to direct our own actions
Restricts communication to when both parties are available at the same time
Gives the sender (i.e., Internet user) the opportunity of leaving a message without needing the receiver to be present at the time the message is transmitted.
First Media Age
form of media such as newspapers, radio, and television
Second Media Age
Age of cyberspace and interactive media
Interconnected world in cyberspace
Seven Motives for Online Terrorist Recruitment
Recruitment and Mobilization
Planning and Coordination
It is an ancient practice of concealing messages within texts, pictures, and objects
The art of communicating without making the communication noticeable, thereby making it anonymous
negotiation with a terrorist or group of terrorists for the liberation of one or more hostages
View terrorist acts themselves as objectives and generally resist negotiation and communication
Employ hostages as leverage to accomplish other goals
A situation in which terrorist-negotiators who have fewer alternatives than their counterpart lean toward using extreme measures to attain power dominance
Dyadic Hostage Negotiation
When the hostage taker makes straight forward requests to the hostage negotiator
Triadic Hostage Negotiation
hostage taker tries to employ the hostage as a go-between
3 types of Acts of Bargaining
Uncertainty Reduction Theory
a theory suggesting that people are motivated to reduce their uncertainty about others
Interacting with Hostage Takers
Be courteous and calm
Volunteer little information
Offer no controversial opinions
Listen respectfully to any political agenda the hostage takers say
A by-product of intrapersonal processes, whereby many hostages may perceive their captors as victims of the situation.
Hostage Identification Syndrome (also called Lima Syndrome)
positive interactions lead the hostage taker to identify with the victim
3 Types of Deception
Manipulation of information
Strategically controlled behavior
expressing one emotion while feeling another
Acting as though one feels an emotion when the emotion does not exist
Refer to minuscule facial expressions that are performed for less than a quarter of a second and often accidentally
Unintentional betrayal of internal feelings through nonverbal communication
Some behavioral channels that are harder to control than others
4 Key Negotiating Temperaments
Pragmatist (Street Fighter)
Action Seeker (High Roller)
Looks at big picture, finds it hard to focus. Makes viewpoints without looking for or giving judgement
When the Harmonizer goes overboard, they become the Pacifier. If the pacifier joins negotiations, true resolution is unlikely.
Controlling, headstrong, organized, and determined. Can become judgemental and impatient.
When going overboard, the Controller becomes the Bull. When the Bull joins negotiations, true resolution is unlikely.
Pragmatist (Street Fighter)
Detail oriented, sequential, real-world, hands-on, bottom-line. They are determined to be right and usually do not accept concessions or alternatives.
Pragmatist becomes Street Fighter when the negotiation becomes competitive. Giving the Street Fighter time to cool down will bring back the pragmatist.
Action Seeker (High Roller)
Sequential, but patient enough to wait for resolution. Because they do not thrive on competition but instead on spur-of-the-moment instant gratification, they are easily distracted. They ignore rules and are unpredictable.
Action Seekers become High Rollers when they risk negotiations for thrill.
Track I Diplomacy
Involves the input and interaction of state or official diplomats in their attempts to resolve conflict. These actors are sent on behalf of their state or institutions.
Track II Diplomacy
Celebrity Diplomacy; using high-profile figures in personal, informal settings to preserve support for negotiations and actions at a local level
Track III Diplomacy
Businessperson to Businessperson; centered on the private sector, free enterprise, and multinational corporations
Track IV Diplomacy
Citizen to citizen; exchange programs of all sorts, such as university, high school, educational, academic, scientific, linguistic, cultural, film, music, art, and sports
Track V Diplomacy
Media-to-media endeavors to expose and educate large sections of the population who have expressed hatred toward the philosophy, beliefs, culture, and needs of the other national, religious, or ethnic group with whom they are in conflict.
Dialogue Among Civilizations
The name given to Former Pres. Khatami's foreign policy in which he sought to work out Iran's differences with the West through dialogue.
Four-step process: prevention, preparation, response, and learning.
Collection of data to create an information database about terrorist actions and to make predictions about their behavior
The collection of people, organizations, and systems that gather, process, diffuse, or take actions based on information.
Inaccurate information that is disseminated unintentionally
Continued Influence Effect
The constant dependence on such misinformation, even when individuals can remember a correction or retraction
false information purposely disseminated, usually by a government, for the purpose of creating a false impression
Centers on human-related properties of information use
Unconfirmed account or explanation of events that diffuses from individual to individual.
Category of belief explanations
Methods by which people recall what their group considers to be important
Terrorism prevention and response center