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42 terms

Cognition

STUDY
PLAY
Thrre pieces of evidence that cause researchers to believe that animals can think.
1. Chimps regulary use sticks stones and other thigns as tool in their natural habitats.
2. Chimps invent courting and grooming customs and pass them on to peers.
3. Monkeys learn to count by using pictures.
Charlie spends all his time finding new ways to cheat instead of just studying what does this show?
A mental set.
Psychologists are skeptical of claims that chimps can aquire language because they have not shown the ability to?
Use syntax in communicating
Dr. Mendoza is studying the mental strategies people use when solving problems. He is a?
Cognitive Psychologist.
A mental group of events or people is called a?
Concept.
The confirmation bias refers to the tendency to?
Search for information that is consistent with our preconceptions.
A prototype is a?
Best example of a particular category
By dividing broad subjects into smaller and detailed sub grouping we create?
Category heirarchies
The discovery of Sultan's problem was due to?
Insight.
A listener who heard a japenese, spanish and native american child babbling w
Would not be able to tell them apart.
The use of heuristics rather than algorithms is most likely to?
save time in arriving at solutions to problems
The basic units of cognition are?
concepts
A common problem in everyday reasoning is our tendency to?
accept as logical those conclusions that agree with our own opinions
Most people tend to?
overestimate the accuracy of their knowledge and judgments.
To find Tabasco sauce in a large grocery store, you could systematically search every shelf in every store aisle. This best illustrates problem solving by means of
an algorithm
The tendency to think of objects only in terms of their normal uses is called
functional fixedness
Which of the following is an example of the use of heuristics?
playing chess using a defensive strategy that has often been successful for you
A chess-playing computer program that routinely calculates all possible outcomes of all possible game moves best illustrates problem solving by means of
an algorithm
When you add s to the word apple you are referring to more than one apple. This illustrates an English language rule of
semantics
Simple thinking strategies that allow us to solve problems and make judgments efficiently are called
heuristics
Syntax refers to the
rules for grouping words into sentences
After spending two hours trying to solve an engineering problem, Amy finally gave up. As she was trying to fall asleep that night, a solution to the problem popped into her head. Amy's experience best illustrates
insight
Paul vainly searches for a screwdriver while failing to recognize that a readily available coin in his pocket would turn the screw. His oversight best illustrates
functional fixedness
Causes of developmental delays in intelligence are
chromosome and genetic disorders

dietary deficiencies

deprived environments
Marilyn was asked to solve a series of five math problems. The first four problems could only be solved by a particular sequence of operations. The fifth problem could also be solved following this sequence; however, a much simpler solution was possible. Marilyn did not realize this simpler solution and solved the problem in the way she had solved the first four. Her problem-solving strategy was hampered by
mental set
If you want to be absolutely certain that you will find the solution to a problem you know is solvable, you should use
an algorithm
The rock musician was hit with a rotten egg while performing his latest hit song. The fact that you can recognize two different meanings for the word "hit" in the preceding sentence demonstrates the importance of
semantics.
The sentence "Blue jeans wear false smiles" has correct ________ but incorrect ________.
syntax; semantics
An algorithm is a
methodical step-by-step procedure for solving problems.
Several studies have indicated that the generic pronoun "he"
tends for both children and adults to trigger images of males but not females.
Which term refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating?
cognition
When we use the word "automobile" to refer to a category of transport vehicles, we are using this word as a(n)
concept
The best evidence that there is a critical period for language acquisition is the fact that
people most easily master the grammar of a second language during childhood.
In order to combine words into grammatically sensible sentences, we need to apply proper rules of
syntax
A mental set is most likely to inhibit
creativity
Phonemes are the basic units of ________ in language
Sound
According to the text, language acquisition is best described as
an interaction between biology and experience
When forming a concept, people often develop a best example, or ________, of a category
Prototype
Because she believes that boys are naughtier than girls, Mrs. Smith, a second-grade teacher, watches boys more closely than she watches girls for any signs of misbehavior. Mrs. Smith's surveillance strategy best illustrates
confirmation bias.
The earliest stage of speech development is called the ________ stage
babbling
A dessert recipe that gives you the ingredients, their amounts, and the steps to follow is an example of a(n)
algorithm
At some point during the babbling stage, infants begin to
lose their ability to discriminate sounds they never hear.