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ECS II - Introduction to Modalities: Electrical Stimulation
Terms in this set (81)
What is a modality?
a means through which energy or physical material is applied to the human body for therapeutic effect
What are the different types of modalities?
1. Thermal (hot/cold)
2. Mechanical (traction)
3. Electromagnetic (e-stim)
Potential effects of modalities
1. Pain relief
3. Range of Motion
What ICF category do modalities generally help with?
a. body impairment
a (body impairment)
Modalities generally address the _____________ of symptoms.
What typically is the cause of symptoms?
What may be the one exception where a modality may be used to address/improve movement impairments?
Modalities should be used as a(n) _________________ to movement correction
T/F modalities are appropriate for all patients
Tissue responds to stress modulated by what 4 variables?
1. movement and alignment
2. psychosocial factors
3. physiological factors
4. extrinsic factors
Modalities are a form of what type of tissue stress modulating variable?
a. movement and alignment
b. psychosocial factors
c. physiological factors
d. extrinsic factors
d (extrinsic factors)
What are the purposes of modalities?
1. impose a certain degree of stress to biological tissue
2. influence the level of stress on a given tissue
3. modify the thresholds for adaptions, injury, or pain
T/F modalities may allow for on enhance the potential effects of movement correction and postural education
true, they can be thought of as a bridge to addressing movement impairments
Positively charged ions are called:
cations (occurs when atom loses an electron)
Negatively charged ions are called:
anions (occurs when atom gains an electron)
Cathode is the _____________ charged pole
Cathode attracts what type of ions?
Anode is the _____________ charged pole
Anode attracts what type of ions?
Define Electric Current
the movement or flow of charged particles (ions) from one pole to another
What is the unit of measurement of electric current?
What do we generally use in the clinic?
use milliamps in clinic
How is electrical current produced?
by the potential difference between two poles in a circuit (aka voltage)
What is Ohm's Law?
V = voltage
I = current
R = resistance
Current is directly proportional to ____________
Current is inversely proportional to ____________
T/F resistance = impedance
What is resistance?
opposition to flow of charged particles (ions)
What is impedance dependent upon?
1. cross-sectional area of the conductor
2. length of the conductor
3. resistivity constant of the conductor
What factors affect the resistivity constant and do they have a high or low resistivity?
1. fat and air = high resistivity
2. muscle and nerve = lower resistivity
3. water and gels = lower resistivity (good for conductivity)
flow of charged particles
What is a direct current used for?
1. edema reduction
2. wound healing
3. delivery of charged medication
4. stimulate denervated muscle
What pulse duration would you use to stimulate denervated muscle?
pulse duration > 1 second
What are the potential harmful effects of direct current and why does it happen?
electrical burns due to accumulation of charged ions at each electrode
flow of charge particles
-equal ion flow in each direction
Is there a net charge with alternating current?
no, electrically neutral
_______________ = number of cycles per second
How is frequency usually expressed?
Pulse per second (pps)
Frequency correlates with _____________
higher frequency = ______________ impedance
lower frequency = _____________ impedance
Which is more comfortable? higher or lower frequency?
Low frequency range
1 to 1,000 Hz
Low frequency uses
(usually a portable machine)
Medium frequency range
1,001 to 10,000 Hz
Medium frequency uses
High frequency range
High frequency uses
Diathermy (thermal production of heat)
delivery of electrical current
-current delivered in pulses
______________ pulse durations allow for better discrimination among sensory, motor, and pain fibers
T/F pulses per second (pps) only applies to a pulsatile current
If you want a fused contraction using a pulsatile current would you rather use a low or high pulse rate?
high pulse rate (> 35 pps)
What does a low pulse rate do to the muscle?
just makes it twitch
PPS is inversely related to the ______________
What is the period in regards to pulsatile current?
pulse duration + interpulse duration
T/F longer pulse durations are generally more comfortable
false, generally less comfortable
T/F longer pulse durations are more likely to achieve muscle contraction with less amplitude
T/F waveform is only applicable to alternating current
false, applicable to AC, DC, PC
What type of waveform creates polar effects?
What geometric shape of waveform is generally more comfortable? more therapeutic? most common?
more comfortable - triangular
more therapeutic - rectangular
most common - sinusoidal
T/F waveform matters
Current on time
period during which a train of pulses is delivered
Current off time
period during which there is no current delivery
What is the purpose of the on:off time ratio?
reduce muscle fatigue
What is RAMP?
gradual increase/decrease in intensity during the on time
How can you adjust the RAMP to increase patient comfort?
use a longer ramp
What is burst mode?
series of pulses delivered as a package in a single pulse (burst)
Monopolar electrode configuration
Large electrode as a dispersive site
small electrode as the active site
Which electrode is placed over the treatment area in a monopolar configuration?
small electrode/active site electrode
When would you use a monopolar electrode configuration?
1. wound healing
2. edema reduction
3. medication delivery
Bipolar Electrode configuration
2 electrodes of the same size are placed over the treatment area
Which electrode is active in a bipolar configuration?
both electrodes are active and have equal physiological effects
Should a bipolar configuration result in polar effects?
No, unless cycle/phase is asymmetric or unbalanced
Quadripolar Electrode configuration
4 electrodes of the same size are placed around a specific target tissue with the channels crossed
What is a beat frequency?
difference between the frequencies of the two alternating currents
When is quadripolar configuration used?
When does depolarization of a nerve cell occur?
when a stimulus of sufficient amplitude changes the resting membrane potential
What is the range for resting membrane potential?
-60 to -90 mV
Adequate stimulation of a nerve depends on:
1. current amplitude
2. stimulus duration
What is Rheobase?
minimum intensity of an electrical stimulus delivered over an infinite period that produces an action potential
What is Chronaxie?
duration required for a stimulus with the intensity of two times the rheobase intensity to produce an action potential
Strength - Duration Curve
A fibers: sensory
B fibers: motor
C fibers: pain
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