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PSYC 206 Practice Exam #3
Terms in this set (35)
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
OCD is an anxiety disorder characterized by intrusive unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and the carrying out of rituals which temporarily reduce the anxiety (compulsions). Typical obsessions include fear of contamination by germs, unwarranted guilt feelings, the need to mentally count or modify thinking. Typical compulsions include hand washing, cleaning, counting and checking rituals. Individuals possessing two copies of the short promotor allele for the SERT gene are at increased risk of developing this disorder.
COMPARE OPEN AND CLOSED HEAD INJURY
Open head injury occurs when the skull is breached due to a traumatic injury to the brain while the skull is not breached in closed head injury. In both cases there will typically be bruising at the point of impact with focal signs and symptoms occuring characteristic of the brain structures damage. For closed head injury there may be both coup injury (at the point of impact) and contracoup injury (at the opposite end of the brain) if the head is moving when contact is made with a surface. Inertial forces cause the brain to continue to move within the skull causing diffuse injuries (shearing of axons, tearing of blood vessels). Cognitive losses such as amnestic syndromes, difficulty solving problems and staying on task are not uncommon in closed head injuries. Long term sequelae of head injuries are possible including neurodegenerative changes even years after the injury.
HYPOFRONTALITY THEORY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
This theory holds that schizophrenia is a neurodegenerative disease in which neurons in the frontal and often the temporal lobes degenerate. The degeneration may begin in childhood, but the symptoms may not become manifest until late adolescence or early adulthood. Loss of prefrontal neurons can dysregulate the mesolimbic dopamine pathway because frontal lobe neurons control the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and also project to the dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area. This dysregulation may produce positive schizophrenic symptoms such as paranoia as well as negative symptoms such as flattened affect. Loss of temporal lobe neurons may also contribute the auditory hallucinations typical of schizophrenia.
NORMAL PRESSURE HYDROCEPHALUS
Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a condition in which CSF pressure in the ventricular system is elevated because of a failure to reabsorb CSF into the dural sinus by the arachnoid villi. It may be associated with inflammation of the villi, can occur in individuals who have received multiple spinal taps, and results usually in less pressure elevation than an obstruction of the ventricular system or excess production of CSF by a papilloma. Symptoms may include gait disturbances and reduced cognitive function. Treatment is by an intraventricular shunt.
insidious onset; diffuse neurological signs and symptoms
An example of this type of disorder is the movement disorder produced by MPTP.
The hallmark of these diseases are sudden onset, focal neurological signs and symptoms without brusing.
insidious onset; focal neurological signs and symptoms.
This anti-seizure drug is also useful in the treatment of bipolar disorder because it has anti-manic effects.
This atypical antipsychotic drug blocks both serotonin and dopamine receptors.
This drug selectively blocks the reuptake of serotonin.
This monamine oxidase inhibitor may be used to treat both depression and Parkinsonism.
This anti-depressive drug blocks the reuptake of both serotonin and nor-epinephrine.
Arboviruses such as Eastern equine encephalitis
may result in encephalitis
Depakote can be effective in the treatment of
bipolar affective disorder
Tremor at rest
occurs in Parkinsonism
is usually caused by nigrostriatal degeneration
Methyl phenyl tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)
may produce a drug induced Parkinsonian syndrome, is a meperidine analogue, can stimulate opioid receptors, kills neurons in the substantia nigra
Elevated protein in the CSF is typical of
Which of the following would not be considered a space occupying lesion?
transient ischemic attack
The negative symptoms of schizophrenia include
The prodrome or aura in migraine headaches
often precedes a reduction in serotonin activity in the dura
In the diathesis-stress model
stress is an underlying cause cause of disorders
Cortisol secretion normally increases if
stimulation of neurosecretory hypothalamic neurons by the amygdala increases, an organism is under stress, the pituitary gland produces ACTH, the hypothalamus produces more CRH
Neurons in the basal forebrain
function to increase cortical activity
Alzheimer's disease is usually associated with cell loss in
the basal forebrain
the frontal lobe cortex
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
involves loss of lower motoneurons in the spinal cord
Ergotamine is useful in the treatment of migraines because
it is a serotonin agonist
For which of the following is co-morbidity with anxiety disorders highest?
SERT gene in developing anxiety disorders
The short allele for the SERT gene is associated with increased risk for developing anxiety disorders
involves amyloid plaques, is a spongiform encephalopathy, involves cell loss in the cerebellum, is a prion disorder
T or F, Complex partial seizures differ from simple partial seizures insofar as complex partial seizures usually involved tonic-clonic convulsions.
T or F, Pathways interconnecting the nucleus accumbens and the prefrontal cortex play a role in enabling expectations to influence the reward value of all reinforcers.
T or F, Atypical antipsychotic drugs are more likely than first generation anti-psychotic drugs such as thorazine to result in tardive dyskinesia.
T or F, Many anti-seizure drugs including Dilantin mitigate seizures by either blocking voltage dependent sodium channels or facilitating the opening of chloride channels.
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