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Honors Bio Final
Terms in this set (127)
What is ATP?
ATP is chemical energy adenosine triphosphate made up of three phosphate groups and a ribose sugar or five carbon sugar
Explain how ATP is created from ADP. Write the equation
Made through dehydration synthesis. This requires energy, so it's endergoic. Equation ADP + Pi (+energy) yields ATP + H20
Explain how ATP is broken down. Include equation
ATP is broken down through hydrolysis. This breaks the ATP between the phosphate groups. This releases energy, making exogenic Equation ATP + H20 yields ADP + Pi + energy
Give examples of what type of work is the energy released by ATP is used to do
Chemical work use the energy to help at another chemical reaction this is called coupling, this breaks into ADP plus PI; the PI bonds to something, usually a protein, and changes its shape. Transport work active transport in bulk transport mechanical work movement of the cilia Chromosomes during cell division in muscular contraction
How is energy released when ATP is broken down
The phosphate groups or negatively charged, which makes them unstable; when bonds are broken, the molecule (ADP) Becomes more stable, which releases energy. The energy is not in the bond.
What is the catabolic reaction? Give three examples
Breaking down of complex molecules into simpler ones. Examples, cellular respiration (aerobic) — needs oxygen anaerobic — doesn't need oxygen fermentation —Needs oxygen, but isn't getting enough
Explain redox reactions
Reduction — Edition of an electron to a molecule, usually a protein
Oxidation — Loss of an electron from a molecule, usually a glucose
Explain what transports electrons. How does this molecule obtain electrons and having the electrons affects the molecules (redox)
NAD+ Transports electrons; went to electrons and hydrogen ion are added, it becomes an NADH, the reduced form, and it carries electrons. NAD+ is the oxidize form with Noah electrons. The same thing goes for FAD and FADH2
What are the two types of ways to make ATP
Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle/Krebs cycle
Explain substrate level phosphorylation
ATP is created in this; when an enzyme removes a Pi from a molecule and bonds it to in ADP to make ATP
What is cellular respiration and where does it occur?
The oxidation of glucose to produce ATP. It is a catabolic reaction. All energy comes from the sun. Occurs in the mitochondria.
What are the parts of cellular respiration
Glycolysis, oxidation of pyruvate, citric acid cycle/Krebs cycle, oxidative phosphorylation (ETC and Chemiosmosis)
Where does glycolysis occur? Is oxygen needed? Is in mitochondria needed?
Occurs in the cytosol/cytoplasm. Oxygen is not needed. Can occur in prokaryotes, so mitochondria is not needed
What is the purpose of glycolysis
To break down glucose into pyruvate and make ATP
What does glycolysis require?
Glycolysis requires glucose, 2ATP, 2NAD+
What are products of glycolysis
2 pyruvate, 2 ATP (net gain), 2 NADH
Explain the oxidation of pyruvate, step-by-step
To pyruvate are actively transported through the two transport proteins through both membranes, into the matrix of the mitochondria. They lose one carbon each in the form of CO2 and become an unknown with two carbons. This is oxidized buy NAD+ and forms NADH, and then eight to carbon acetate is formed. This bonds with CoA, Making acetyl CoA, Which has two carbons. This happens twice because there are two pyruvate.
Where does the oxidation of pyruvate occur? How many times does it occur for one glucose molecule?
It occurs twice in the matrix of the mitochondria.
What is created by the oxidation of pyruvate?
2 Acetyl CoA, 2Co2
Where does the Krebs cycle, or citric acid cycle occur? How many times does it occur for one glucose molecule
It occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria, happens twice
What is the beginning/ending molecule of the Krebs cycle
Oxaloacetate four carbon
What is created by the Krebs cycle?
6 NADH, 2 ATP, 2 FADH2, 4 CO2 (oxaloacetate)
Explain the role of NADH in the ETC. Explain the flow
NADH delivers electrons to proteins 13 and four. Electronegativity increases from protein to protein. NADH is the carrier of electrons. It drops off higher do you electrons to protein one which is the role. Electrons go from touching one to protein three to protein 4 to oxygen. Oxygen is the final electron except or . and it will bind two Hydrogen ions where it becomes H2O. Energy is released between the proteins, and that energy is used to actively transport hydrogen ions into the matrix to the inner membrane work.
Explain the role of FADH2 in the ETC. Explain the flow.
The FADH2 has the same job as NADH. The electrons carried by FADH2 come from the Krebs cycle. They go from 2 to 3 to 4 tooxygen where they also form H2O
What is created at the end of the ETC
Six H2O and a hydrogen ion gradient a.k.a. proton motive force
Explain the process of Chemiosmosis
Hydrogen ions from the inter-membrane space diffuse through and ATP synthase, creating enough kinetic energy for an ADP + Pi To phosphorylate into ATP
What is the chemical equation for cellular respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O+30-32 ATP
What does anaerobic mean
without oxygen. Does not require oxygen. It means an organism doesn't need or use oxygen. It also has a different final electron except or. Example bacteria uses sulfate as the final electron acceptor forming H2 S instead of H2O
What are the two situations that exist for anaerobic processes to occur
Anaerobic respiration and fermentation
What are the two situations that exist for anaerobic processes to occur
Anaerobic respiration and fermentation
Anaerobic respiration, explain, compared to aerobic respiration
It means an organism doesn't need or use oxygen. It also has a final electron acceptor that is different. Example bacteria uses sulphate as the final electron except or forming H2 S not H2O. Aerobic respiration needs and uses oxygen, and H2O is the final electron acceptor
Explain what happens when oxygen isn't present in an organism that is aerobic
This will cause a lack of NAD+ Which. All processes of cellular respiration, so fermentation will happen
What is the purpose of fermentation
The purpose is to keep processes of cellular respiration going, when there is no longer oxygen. It allows the regeneration of NAD+. So glycolysis can continue and ATP is made
Explain be able to draw lactic acid fermentation. What organisms use this process
The electrons from the NADH are brought to the three carbon 2 pyruvate, the three carbon 2 pyruvate then forms two lactic acid's and The NADH after dropping off the two electrons at the pyruvate, is oxidized back into NAD+. This occurs in muscle cells, bacteria, and fungi.
Explain and be able to draw alcohol fermentation
Alcohol fermentation is when the three carbon, to pyruvate, release to carbon dioxide and form two acetaldehyde Which has the two electrons from the NADH dropped off at it, from there the NADH oxidizes back into NAD+ The two acetaldehyde Then forms two ethanol. This occurs in yeast and bacteria
What is a macromolecule
A big covalently bonded molecule
What are the types of macromolecules In our body
Carbohydrates proteins lipids and nucleic acid's
Which of these macromolecules form polymers
Carbohydrates proteins nucleic acid's and not lipid's
What is the monomer
Building block/subunit of Polymer
What is the monomer of a carbohydrate called give three examples
Monosaccharide glucose fructose galactose
What is the name of the molecule that is created when two of these monomers are bonded together three or more bonded together
What is the name of the process to build these
Do you hydration synthesis
What is the name of the process to break them apart?
What are the uses of carbohydrates
Fuel in building
Explain it to the uses and distinguish the difference is between each organism that uses them
Feel can be used for quick energy sources and a storage building is used for cell walls and Exo skeleton's
What elements are in a carbohydrate in a lipid
Carbon hydrogen and oxygen
What are the monomers of lipids
Glycerol heads in fatty acid tails
Describe the different types of fatty acid tails
Composed of a carboxyl group and hydrogen chain nonpolar. Saturated has a straight shape and is solid at room temperature can be compacted the carbons have a single bond in a completely surrounded by hydrogen. Unsaturated has at least one double bond has a bender Kinki at the double bond not as compacted mars face liquid at room temperature not completely surrounded by hydrogen
What are the different types of lipids
What are the. Components of each type of lipid
Glycerol and three fatty acid tails
What is the process used to create lipids
What elements are in proteins
Carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen
Name and draw the monomer of a protein.
Draw an amino acid
What is the name of the reaction when two amino acids are bonded together draw and label this reaction.
Do you hydration synthesis to make a dipeptide and water
How was one amino acid different from another how are proteins different from one another?
Their group differs from the amino acids shape can Change a proteins function
What are the functions of a protein
speed up chemical reactions act as a catalyst/enzymes Storage seeds, egg whites, milk. Defense against viruses antibodies cellular communications receptors structural support collagen transportation hormones insulin motor proteins muscle movement
What determines the shape of a Protein? Why is it so shape important?
Shape is important for the proteins function shape is determined by the amino acid sequences
What elements are in nucleic acid
Carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen phosphorus
What is the monomer for a nucleic acid draw it
Monomer is a nucleotide made of a nitrogen base five carbon sugar and phosphate group. Draw this.
What are the two types of nucleic acid's
DNA and RNA
Explain the differences between the two types of nucleic acid's.
Sugars deoxyribose sugar has one less oxygen then ribose. Ribose sugar. Nitrogen bases A=T C=G FOR RNA A=U C=G double helix for DNA single helix For RNA
Name and describe the two types of nitrogen bases
Purines have two rings (AG). Pyrimidines have one ring (TCU)
Explain what anti-parallel means. Draw an example.
To parallel strands going in opposite directions. Draw an example.
Explain with an enzyme is, what it does, and how it does it.
Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts. They speed up the chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy.
What is activation energy? Draw a graph that shows activation energy with and without an enzyme on the same graph.
It's the energy required to initiate a chemical reaction. The enzymes are not used up or changed in this process, which means that they can be reused multiple times. Draw the Graph on a blank sheet of paper
Drama label and explain all of the parts of an enzyme
Talk about how together they form and Sam substrate complex, talk about the substrate, talk about the active site on enzyme where the substrate binds, talk about the compound substrate plus enzyme yields enzyme substrate complex. And draw on a blank sheet of paper
Draw the process of an enzyme making maltose
Talk about the products of glucose plus glucose talk about our forms and How all enzymes and in Ase, glucose, and substrate maltose. Drawing a blank sheet of paper
Explain the four things that will affect enzyme activity or read the reaction. Make sure you state what the effect is and how and why the effect has this effect
Temperature as temp in creases and Sam activity increases until it reaches the optimum temperature and heat temperature above this will cause enzyme activity to decrease because the bonds that hold the proteins in shape denature PH enzymes have an optimum pH, any pH above or below this causes the enzyme to denature no graph on page 156 of the textbook. Cofactors and coenzymes help substrate binds to the enzyme, decreasing enzyme activity, can be in organic meaning it doesn't have carbon organic meaning it has carbon. Inhibitors decrease enzyme activity competitive inhibitor's have a similar shape as a substrate divine to active say and stop the enzyme from bonding there. Non-competitive inhibitor's are not shaped like the substrate and does not bind to the active site. And binds anywhere but the active site, causing the active site to change shapes of the substrate can't bind there.
What is the optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme below
Look at paper for graphs
What are the different macromolecules?
Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids which are not a polymer, nucleic acid's
What is a polymer how was it created
Molecule made by covalently bonding monomers together
Draw and label the equation for creating a polymer
Draw and label this on a blank sheet of paper
Which of the molecules is not a polymer
Name and explain the process or reaction for creating a polymer.
Do you hydration synthesis to monomers bond to form water and a polymer
Name and explain the process or reaction for breaking down the polymer
Hydrolysis water breaks the bond between the polymer and forms to monomers
What are the elements in carbohydrates
Carbon hydrogen oxygen
What is the Monomer or subunit for carbohydrates
What are the different monosaccharides
Glucose fructose galactose
Draw glucose molecule
Draw on a separate piece of paper
What are the products were into glucose molecules are bonded together what process is this what if it is the glucose and fructose
Walter some water do you hydration synthesis sucrose
What are the products when 3or more monosaccharides are bonded together
Polysaccharide and two Waters
What are the uses of carbohydrates
Fuel and building
Explain what type of energy carbohydrates are
Carbohydrates are a quick energy source glucose. And there are used to make ATP
Explain the different ways carbohydrates are stored. Where in the organism are these molecules stored?
Animal store them as glycogen a highly branched polymer of glucose these are stored in the animals liver and muscle cells plant store them as a starch a less branched polymer of glucose
Explain the different structural molecules of carbohydrates what are they for
Cell walls and exoskeletons cell walls for plants in our cellulose polymer of glucose, and fungi/bacteria are use Chintin exoskeleton has chitin. Used by anthropoids
What is another name for cellulose in our diet? Why is it so good for us? Do we get nutritional value from it?
Fiber it is good because it keeps her blood glucose levels low fiber is not a nutrient because it isn't digested or observed by the body.
What suffix or ending do most sugars have
How do animal cells respond to each type of Tonicity
I so tonic preferred solution hypertonic Water will leave the cell in the cell will shrivel and maybe die
Hypotonic. Cell will swell and eventually lyse or burst
How do plant cells respond to each type of Tonicity
Isotonic lax turgor pressure, so they are a limp/wilted/flaccid Turgor pressure is the pressure of the cell wall exerts on the water coming into the cell plasma membrane pushes against cell wall hypertonic worst for plant, plasmolysis happens which is when the plasma membrane separates from the cell wall. Hypotonic best for a plant
What does facilitated diffusion
When the protein is needed for polar molecules or ions to go through the molecule
Explain the types of proteins that help with facilitated diffusion
Channel proteins carrier proteins and gated ion channels protein molecule has to bind to Ray's liquor. Drop pictures of each on blank paper.
Explain active transport
Molecules/ions are pumped from a low concentration to high concentration against the concentration gradient so it requires energy. They go through protein pump. And example would be the ninth Na+ K + ion pump. H plus pump
Explain endocytosis in general
When you're taking in nutrients
Explain the different types of endocytosis
Phagocytosis when the cell engulfs around a particle PinocytosisExtracellular fluid is engulfed by the cell, to get the molecules dissolved, doesn't want the fluid. Receptor mediated endocytosis a specific molecule binds to receptors on the plasma membrane, which conjugate into one area makes a coded pit and endocytosis occurs there. Draw picture of each
To get rid of waste the vesicle fuses With the plasma membrane and releases the content into the extracellular fluid
What are the characteristics of living things? Nonliving things?
Living made the cells, response to stimulus, reproduces, they move, use/require energy, grow, adapt to Environment, evolve, maintain homeostasis, die nonliving or never living are the opposite of living
What is the cell theory?
All living things are made up of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, new cells are produced from existing cells
What type of microscope do we use? How do you find the total magnification of the microscope?
Light microscope multiply ocular lens by the objective lens
What is the main difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Euks are animal and plant cells and pokes are bacteria cells
Compare and contrast prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Eukaryotes are larger 100 to 10 UM, different shape, younger, more involved/complex, have mitochondria, Lysosome Golgi Prokaryotes are smaller one through 10 UM different shape, older, less involved/complex, has capsule, nucleotide, firmembrae
Compare and contrast plant cells and animal cells
Plant have cell walls chloroplast central vacuole large rectangle larger 100 UM animal lysosomes flagella centrosomes with centrioles smaller 10 UM both plasma membrane nucleus ribosomes
What does the plasma membrane do
It regulates what goes in and out of the cell
What type of surface area to volume ratio must it have to do this well why
Help me I want death
Why do cells have villi or microvilli
It's a banding on the outside of the membrane and microvilli are smaller. They have these to increase surface area and make this cell have more area
What is the endomembrane system?
This is the phospholipid by layer of eukaryotes nuclear envelope pardon the nucleus ER rough and smooth Golgi vacuoles plant cells storage of water vesicles
Draw and label the parts of the nucleus
On the blank sheet of paper
What is the function of the nucleus and nucleolus
Nucleus stores DNA into it to Terry information has info to make proteins nucleolus subunit of the ribosomes synthesizes or makes ribosomes
What is the function of the rough ER
rough ER site of protein synthesis and creates phospholipids that will become the plasma membraneSmooth ER synthesizes lipids phospholipid cholesterol oils stores see a 2+ calcium ion detoxifies drugs and poisons in the liver cell has more smooth ER then other Oregon metabolizes carbohydrates
What is the function of ribosomes where are they located
They synthesize proteins can be bound to the rough ER or nuclear envelope or I'm bound a.k.a. free in the cytoplasm proteins for cell
What is the function of the Golgi
Sorts modifies and packages proteins and then it exports them
What is the function of a vesicle
Help transport export the proteins out of the Golgi
What the function of the mitochondria? Draw and label it
It's a stage of cellular respiration chemical reaction that breaks down glucose and ATP, draw the mitochondrial structure
What is the function of the chloroplast draw and label it
So the photosynthesis CO2 and H2O used to form glucose Draw it
Explain the Endo symbiotic theory
The ancestor of a eukaryotic cell in golfed form of endocytosis and oxygen using a non-photosynthetic prokaryotes sell forming a mutualistic Relationship with it and forming the mitochondria this new selling golf the photosynthetic pro Carriott Excel and formed a mutualistic relationship forming with the chloroplast
What is the evidence supporting the Endo symbiotic theory
Mitochondria and chloroplasts have a double membrane both have their own DNA both DNAs are circular both grow and divide reproduce independent from self both have ribosomes which means they make their own proteins both are the same size as a prokaryotes 1 to 5 UM mitochondria is one chloroplast is five
What Is the fluid Mosaic model
Shows the movement of the plasma membrane movement of the plasma membrane in the structures mosaic
What structures make the plasma membrane mosaic
Phospholipids and proteins cholesterol carbohydrates
Explain each of the structures above in detail
Phospholipids glycerol to fatty acid tails hydrophilic head hydrophobic tails fast beat proteins per Friel found to the surface of the membrane either inside or outside integral blinds inside the plasma membrane not all the way through transmembrane goes through the lipid bilayer cholesteryl lipid with for fused to see rings that go between fatty acid tails carbohydrates glycolipid/glycoprotein equals glycol equals carbohydrate
What affects the fluidity of the plasma membrane
Type a fatty acid tails sat equals less fluid on unsat equals more fluid
How would you sell respond if the temperature increased
If the temp increase his fluid did it increases because Kinetic energymovement increases
Why would you cell respond this way
It wants to maintain fluid did he do this by adding cholesterol increased number of saturated by the acid tails only if temperature increases if temperature decreases decreased number of saturated fatty acid tails decreased number of unsaturated fatty acid tails if only temperature increases if temperature decreases increased number of unsaturated fatty acid tails
The movement of cells/molecules from high concentration to low concentration until it reaches equilibrium. Is a form of passive transport, so it does not require energy from the cell
Explain the diffusion of non-polar molecules
They do not go through the lipid bilayer easily because the non-polar fatty acid tails stop them and they have to go through a transport protein
What determines the direction of diffusion
It is determined by the concentration goes from high concentration in one area to an equal concentration in all areas
The movement of water through a membrane with the help of the protein I could pour in from a higher water concentration to a lower water concentration until equilibrium is reached
Explain Tonicity. And the three different types of it
Gaining/losing water by yourself isotonic concentration of water of the solution equals the concentration of water in the cell this is at equilibrium hypertonic hyper means more which means more solute which means less free water the solution will have a lower water concentration then the cell hypotonic hypo means less which means less solute which means the last free water the solution has a higher water concentration then in the cell
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