What are 3 examples of collective influence?
1. social facilitation
2. social loafing
What are 3 examples of social influence in interacting groups?
1. group polarization
3. minority influence
What is the question associated with social facilitation?
How are we affected by the presence of others?
What is the original definition associated with social facilitation?
Original: tendency of ppl to perform simple or well learned tasks better when others are present.
What is the current definition associated with social facilitation?
Current: Strengthening of dominant responses owing t the presence of others.
What does the term "driven by distraction" refer to in terms of group influence and crowding?
conflict between paying attn to others and paying attn to one's own task, over loads the cognitive system causing arousal.
This refers to simply having other ppl around which produces some arousal even w/o eval apprehension or distraction.
What does Social loafing refer to?
tendency for ppl to exert less effort when they pool their efforts towards a common goal than when they are individually accountable.
When being observed, increase in evaluation concerns results in _______. When lost in a crowd, decrease in evaluation concern, _______ occurs.
social facilitation, social loafing.
What factors produce less social loafing?
when task is challenging, appealing, or involving.
when grp members are friends or identified with their grp rather than strangers.
This is a loss of self awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in grp situations that foster anonymity and draw attn away from individual.
What circumstances elicit the deindividuized state?
1. Group Size
2. Physical Anonymity (makes one less self conscious)
3. Arousing & Distracting Activities (Impulsive grp action absorbs our attn)
4. Diminished Self Awareness (Disconnect behaviour from attitudes)
What is the main idea behind group polarization?
grp discussion often strengthens members initial inclinations, process of inquiry, discovery often leads to hasty and erroneous conclusions which ultimately get replaced with more accurate ones.
This is group produced enhancement of members pre-existing tendencies, a strengthening of the members avg tendency, not a split w/in the grp...
What are the factors involved in Informational Influence?
- grp discussion elicits pooling of ideas, usually favours dominant view.
- persuasive arguments can produce a shift in position of members
- active participation in discussion produces more attitude change, than passive listening.
What are the 2 factors associated with Normative Influence?
1. social comparison: evaluating one's opinions & abilities by comparing yourself to others.
2. Pluralistic Ignorance: false impression of how other ppl are thinking, feeling, or responding.
This is the mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrance-seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive grp that it tends to over ride realistic appraisal of alt courses of action...
What two symtpoms of groupthink lead grp members to overestimate their groups might and right?
1. Illusion of invulnerability
2. Unquestioned belief in the grps morality.
What 2 symptoms of groupthink produce close mindedness in grp members?
2. Stereotyped view of opponent
What 4 factors of groupthink cause group to suffer from pressures toward uniformity?
1. Conformity Pressure
3. Illusion of Unanimity
These are some ways to prevent Groupthink...
- Be impartial, do not endore any opinion
- encourage critical evaluation
- occasionally subdivide grp, reunite to air differences
- welcome critiques from outside experts and associates
- before implementing idea, call "2nd chance" meeting, to air any lingering doubts.
What does the free-rider effect refer to? (Kerr)
When one thinks others in grp will solve task, you take free ride and reap benefits.
This is the idea that if you think others will be free-riders, you lower your effort so you aren't the "sucker" doing all the work. (Kerr)
What are two ways in which social loafing can be reduced?
1. Make ppls contributions indenifiable
2. Give ppl individual tasks to perform.