103 terms

CH 10.1- 10.4 Imperialism

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Queen Liliuokalani
In 1893, SHE gave up her throne. Hawaii was about to be taken over by the United States.
imperialism
By the 1890s, many American leaders thought the United States should establish colonies overseas. This idea was called THIS - the policy in which stronger nations extend economic, political or military control over weaker territories.
Europe
Countries from THIS continent had been competing for territory all over the world by the end of the 1400s. Most aAmericans gradually accepted the idea of overseas expansion.
1. military
2. new markets
3. cultural superiority
Three factors fueled imperialism:
1. Desire for THIS strength.
2. Thirst for THESE.
3. A belief in THIS.
Admiral Alfred T. Mahan
THIS Admiral of the U.S. Navy supported growing American naval power so the U.S. could compete with other nations.
markets
and
raw materials
By the late 1800s, technology had changed American farms and factories. They produced more than Americans could consume. So the U.S. needed foreign trade. American businesses needed THESE for their products and THIS for their factories.
Anglo-Saxon
The third root of American imperialism was a belief that the people of the United States were better than the people of other countries. This racist belief came from people's pride in THIS (Northern European) heritage.
Christian religion
People sometimes felt they had a duty to spread their culture and THIS belief among other people.
William Seward
HE was Secretary of State for presidents Lincoln and Andrew Johnson.
Russia
In 1867 he purchased Alaska from THIS country for $7.2 million.
"Seward's Icebox"
or
"Seward's Folly"
Some opponents in Congress made fun of the deal calling it "THIS" AKA "THIS."
China and India
The Hawaiian Islands, in the Pacific Ocean, had been important to the United States since the 1790s. Merchants had stopped there on their way to HERE and HERE.
churches and schools
In the 1820s, American missionaries founded THESE two institutions on the islands.
sugar plantations
A number of Americans had established THESE in Hawaii. In the mid-1800s, these large farms accounted for about 3/4 of the wealth of the islands.
the McKinley Tariff
Then THIS caused a crisis for Hawaiian sugar growers. With the duty on their sugar, Hawaiian growers faced stiff competition from other growers.
annex
The powerful Hawaiian sugar growers called for the U.S. to annex Hawaii (add a country as a territory or protectorate).
Pearl Harbor
The U.S. military had already understood the value of Hawaii. In 1887, the U.S. forced Hawaii to let it build a naval base HERE, Hawaii's best port.
Queen Liliuokalani
When the Hawaiian king died in 1891, his sister became queen. SHE wanted a new constitution that would give the voting power back to ordinary Hawaiians. American business interests did not want this to happen.
John L. Stevens
American business groups organized a revolt against the queen. THIS American ambassador helped them.
Sanford B. Dole
The planters took control of the island. They established a temporary government and made THIS American businessman the president.
Grover Cleveland
Stevens urged the U.S. government to annex the Hawaiian Islands. THIS president refused to take over the islands unless a majority of Hawaiians favored that.
William McKinley
In 1897, however, HE became president. He favored annexation. In 1898, Hawaii became a U.S. territory.
Theodore Roosevelt
In 1901, President McKinley was assassinated, at the World's Fair in Buffalo New York. HE became president.
Russo-Japanese War
Roosevelt first used his influence to help settle THIS War.
Korea
and
Manchuria
The Russo-Japanese War began in 1904. both countries wanted to control THIS country. Japan had captured it and also invaded THIS, which was controlled by Russia.
Nobel Peace Prize
Then Japan wanted to stop the fighting. The Japanese asked President Roosevelt to mediate the conflict. In 1905, representatives of Russia and Japan met. Roosevelt used his personal charm to help them negotiate a compromise. They signed a treaty, and Roosevelt received THIS in 1906 for his efforts.
Treaty of Portsmouth
The agreement/treaty that Roosevelt helped mediate to end the war was also called THIS.
the Panama Canal
Roosevelt also used his influence to help build THIS.
Pacific and Atlantic
The idea of a canal connecting THESE two Oceans had been discussed for some time.
South America
Such a canal would reduce time for military and commercial shipping. No longer would it be necessary to go all the way around THIS.
Colombia
Political problems stood in the way, however. Panama was a province of THIS. When they did not agree to the canal, the United States helped Panama rebel against them.
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
The Canal Zone came into being on May 4, 1904 ("Acquisition Day"), under the terms of THIS Treaty of 1903 by which Panama granted to the United States, in return for annual payments, the sole right to operate and control the canal and about 5 miles (8 km) of land on each side. The canal was constructed between 1904 and 1914.
Latin America
On August 15, 1914, the canal opened for business. It was a success from the start. More than 1,000 ships passes through during its first year. However, relations between the U.S. and THIS region of the world had been damaged by the takeover of Panama.
the Roosevelt Corollary
President Roosevelt wanted the United States to be a major power in the caribbean and Central America. He declared his policy in a message to Congress in 1904. His statement was called THIS.
the Monroe Doctrine of 1823
A corollary is a logical result of another statement, in this case, THIS, which stated that the U.S. would not allow Europeans in the Western hemisphere.
Nicaragua
In 1911, President Taft used this policy in THIS country. A rebellion had left the country in debt.
dollar diplomacy
Nicaraguans did not like this arrangement. They rebelled. The United States then sent troops to Nicaragua to preserve the peace. Those who did not like this kind of intervention called it THIS.
Monroe = Monroe Doctrine
Roosevelt = Big Stick Diplomacy
President Woodrow Wilson took a step beyond THESE two Presidents by adding a moral tone to Latin American policy. He said that the United States must act in certain circumstances.
"Missionary Diplomacy"
"THIS" so-called policy by Wilson meant that the United States could not officially recognize governments that were oppressive, undemocratic, or opposed to U.S. business interests.
Mexico
Wilson's new doctrine put pressure on countries to have democratic governments. A revolution in THIS country tested his policy.
General Victoriano Huerta
In 1910, peasants and workers rebelled against their military dictator. Two new governments followed, HE headed the second.
Francisco "Pancho" Villa
and Emilio Zappata
Mexico remained in turmoil. Under the leadership of THESE two, rebels revolted against Carranza.
General John J. Pershing
Finally, the Mexican government gave permission to send in troops. Wilson sent THIS General with over 15,000 soldiers. A year later, Villa was still free. Wilson then sent an additional 150,000 National Guardsmen along the border.
Foraker Act
Puerto Rico had become an American territory as a result of the Spanish-American War. American forces landed in puerto Rico in July 1898. Congress passed THIS Act which ended military rule and set up a civil government.
4
Cuba was officially independent after the war. The U.S. army, however, remained in Cuba for ? years. It punished Cubans who did not like this American occupation.
Platt Amendment
In 1900, the new Cuban government wrote a constitution. The United States instead said they added THIS, which limited Cuban's rights dealing with other countries. In essence, it gave the U.S. special privileges, including the right to intervene to preserve order.
protectorate
Cuba became THIS to the U.S.- a country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power. The U.S. insisted on these rights because of its economic interests in Cuba.
Emilio Aguinaldo
Filipinos had been fighting for independence for years. They were angry that the United States had annexed their islands. THIS rebel leader believed that the U.S. had promised independence and therefore betrayed the Filipinos.
Philippine-American War (1899-1892)
In 1899, Aguinaldo started a rebellion, which lasted for three years, THIS WAR (1899-1902) was an armed conflict between the United States and Filipino revolutionaries. After winning the war, the U.S. set up a government similar to the one it had set up in Cuba.
John Hay
By 1899, many countries had economic interests in China. The United States wanted to be able to trade with China. THIS Secretary of State sent a statement of this policy to other countries.
Open Door Notes
Hay's policy statements were called THIS. They called for China's ports to remain open and for China to remain independent. No country would have special trading rights. The other countries agreed.
rebels AKA Boxers

Boxer Rebellion
In 1900, THIS secret society in china started a rebellion. They were protesting the influence of Western countries in China which came to be known as THIS.
William Jennings Bryan
President William McKinley was reelected in 1900. HIS OPPONENT had been an anti-imperialist. The outcome of the election suggests that most American disagreed with him. Imperialism was popular!
Anti-Imperialist League
THIS formed including some prominent Americans. Among its members were former president Grover Cleveland, Andrew Carnegie, Jane Addams, and Mark Twain.
TEDDY ROOSEVELT AND THE NEW WORLD!
How did Roosevelt use American power?
TEDDY ROOSEVELT AND THE NEW WORLD!
How did Roosevelt use American power?
Theodore Roosevelt
In 1901, President McKinley was assassinated, at the World's Fair in Buffalo New York. HE became president.
Russo-Japanese War
Roosevelt first used his influence to help settle THIS War.
Nobel Peace Prize
Then Japan wanted to stop the fighting. The Japanese asked President Roosevelt to mediate the conflict. In 1905, representatives of Russia and Japan met. Roosevelt used his personal charm to help them negotiate a compromise. They signed a treaty, and Roosevelt received THIS in 1906 for his efforts.
Treaty of Portsmouth
The agreement/treaty that Roosevelt helped mediate to end the war was also called THIS.
the Panama Canal
Roosevelt also used his influence to help build THIS.
Pacific and Atlantic
The idea of a canal connecting THESE two Oceans had been discussed for some time.
South America
Such a canal would reduce time for military and commercial shipping. No longer would it be necessary to go all the way around THIS.
Colombia
Political problems stood in the way, however. Panama was a province of THIS. When they did not agree to the canal, the United States helped Panama rebel against them.
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
The Canal Zone came into being on May 4, 1904 ("Acquisition Day"), under the terms of THIS Treaty of 1903 by which Panama granted to the United States, in return for annual payments, the sole right to operate and control the canal and about 5 miles (8 km) of land on each side. The canal was constructed between 1904 and 1914.
43,000
The construction of the Panama Canal was one of the world's greatest engineering accomplishments. Work began in 1904 and took 10 years. In 1913, there were ??,??? workers on the project. The work was hard and dangerous.
Latin America
On August 15, 1914, the canal opened for business. It was a success from the start. More than 1,000 ships passes through during its first year. However, relations between the U.S. and THIS region of the world had been damaged by the takeover of Panama.
the Roosevelt Corollary
President Roosevelt wanted the United States to be a major power in the caribbean and Central America. He declared his policy in a message to Congress in 1904. His statement was called THIS.
the Monroe Doctrine of 1823
A corollary is a logical result of another statement, in this case, THIS, which stated that the U.S. would not allow Europeans in the Western hemisphere.
business
Roosevelt was now saying that the United States had the right to intervene in Latin American countries to protect THESE U.S interests.
Nicaragua
In 1911, President Taft used this policy in THIS country. A rebellion had left the country in debt.
railroads
and
banks
Taft had arranged for U.S. bankers to loan Nicaragua money. In exchange, American businesses took control of THESE two institutions in the country. They also controlled Nicaragua's customs duties.
dollar diplomacy
Nicaraguans did not like this arrangement. They rebelled. The United States then sent troops to Nicaragua to preserve the peace. Those who did not like this kind of intervention called it THIS.
Monroe = Monroe Doctrine
Roosevelt = Big Stick Diplomacy
President Woodrow Wilson took a step beyond THESE two Presidents by adding a moral tone to Latin American policy. He said that the United States must act in certain circumstances.
"Missionary Diplomacy"
"THIS" so-called policy by Wilson meant that the United States could not officially recognize governments that were oppressive, undemocratic, or opposed to U.S. business interests.
Mexico
Wilson's new doctrine put pressure on countries to have democratic governments. A revolution in THIS country tested his policy.
General Victoriano Huerta
In 1910, peasants and workers rebelled against their military dictator. Two new governments followed, HE headed the second.
Venustiano Carranza
Wilson refused to support the Huerta government because it came to power through violence. Wilson sent in troops. When THIS new leader, took power in Mexico, Wilson withdrew the troops.
Francisco "Pancho" Villa
and Emilio Zappata
Mexico remained in turmoil. Under the leadership of THESE two, rebels revolted against Carranza.
Columbus, New Mexico
Some of "Pancho Villa's" followers killed some Americans. Angered over American support of his rivals for the control of Mexico, the peasant-born revolutionary leader Pancho Villa attacks THIS border town. The United States wanted to capture him.
General John J. Pershing
Finally, the Mexican government gave permission to send in troops. Wilson sent THIS General with over 15,000 soldiers. A year later, Villa was still free. Wilson then sent an additional 150,000 National Guardsmen along the border.
in Europe = WWI
Mexicans were angered by the U.S. invasion. In 1916, U.S. troops fought with Carranza's army. In 1917, Wilson withdrew U.S. troops. At the same time, he was facing possible war HERE.
its economic interests
Finally, Mexico adopted a constitution. The Mexicans regained control of their own resources and put limits on foreign investment. American intervention in Mexico showed how far the U.S. was willing to go to protect THIS.
police

navy
Inn the early 20th century, the U.S. pursued several foreign policy goals. It expanded its access to THESE. It built a modern THIS to protect its interests abroad. It used its international police power to get its way in Latin America
slavery
Between 1868 and 1878, Cubans fought their first war for independence from Spain. The rebels did not win, but they did force Spain to abolish ________ in 1886.
sugar cane plantations
The United States capitalists invested heavily into _______________ in Cuba.
Jose Marti
In 1895, Cubans began a second war for independence. _______________ was a Cuban poet and journalist who had been living in exile in New York led the rebellion. The rebels wanted the U.S. to join their cause.
Spain
American opinion was mixed. Some wanted to support _________ in order to keep their investments safe.
England
Others wanted to help the Cuban people win their freedom from Spain just as the United States had won its independence from ____________.
Valeriano Weyler
In 1896, Spain sent an army to Cuba to restore order. The army was led by ______________.
concentration camps
Weyler rounded up the entire rural population of central and western Cuba. He kept 300,000 people as prisoners in ______________. That way they could not help the rebels. Many of them died of starvation and disease.
yellow journalism
This story was widely reported in the United States. Rival newspapers in New York made the terrible events seem even worse. They exaggerated the brutality of the in order to attract readers. These sensational stories became known as ____________ - reporting that exaggerates the news in order to make it more exciting.
William McKinley
______________ became president in 1897. At that time, many Americans wanted the U.S. to help the rebels against Spain.
the de Lome letter
Then two events made American angry with Spain. The first was the publication of the ___________ letter which insulted president McKinley calling him "weak and catering to the rebels rabble".
U.S.S. Maine
Only a few days after the de Lome letter was published, something worse happened. The __________ was stationed in Cuba to protect American lives and property.
Spain
On February 15, 1898, the ship explode. The ship sank, and 260 officers and crew on board died. The cause of the explosion was not known. However, Americans blamed _________. Americans cried for war!
the Philippines
On April 20, 1898, the United States went to war with Spain. The first battle took place in ______________ They had been a Spanish colony for 300 years. They had rebelled many times. In 1896, they began another rebellion.
the Rough Riders
One unit of volunteer soldiers was called _____________.
Teddy Roosevelt
He was one of the leaders of the Rough Riders.
San Juan Hill
The Rough Riders helped win the battle of ______________. American newspapers made Roosevelt a hero.
the Treaty of Paris
Spain quickly agreed to THIS peace treaty that granted Cuba its independence.
Guam
and Puerto Rico
Spain gave THESE two islands to the United States.
$20 million
The United States paid Spain $?? million for the annexation of the Philippine Islands.
imperialism
The Treaty of Paris touched off a great debate in the United States about THIS practice.