AP European History--Enlightenment
Terms in this set (26)
A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God.
(1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
Published work of many philosophes in his Encyclopedia. He hoped it would help people think more rationally and critically.
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property. Also believed in the concept of "tabula rasa"; Wrote Second Treatise of Government
(1712-1778) Believed that society threatened natural rights and freedoms. Wrote about society's corruption caused by the revival of sciences and art instead of it's improvement. Wrote "The Social Contract." Advocated government based on popular sovereignty. Wrote "Emile" on education (education should foster a child's natural instinct)
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
Informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas; often sponsored by aristocratic women so they could be involved in the new ideas of the Enlightenment
Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations a precursor to modern Capitalism.
A popular Enlightenment era belief that there is a God, but that God isn't involved in people's lives or in revealing truths to prophets.
A philosophy which suggests that nothing can ever be known for certain.
The denial of the existence of God; begins during the Enlightenment
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755) Wrote "The Spirit of the Laws"
Author of Of Crime and Punishment. He attacked both torture and capital punishment. He believed criminal justice should ensure speedy trial and sure punishment which was intended to deter further crime. Law was to secure the greatest good for the greatest number of human beings
British feminist of the eighteenth century who argued for women's equality with men, even in voting, in her 1792 "Vindication of the Rights of Women."
Early advocates of laissez-faire economics
(1694-1774) French economist. Quesnay was the undisputed leader of the Physiocrats, the first systematic school of economic thought. Among its tenets were the economic and moral righteousness of laissez-faire policies and the notion that land was the ultimate source of all wealth.
Author of An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding
wrote "System of Nature", which said humans are only machines and have no free will- created a rift between atheist and deist thinkers within the enlightened group. d'Holbach was a devout atheist who believed religion was driven by fear, and controlled people and their reason. People put too much trust in the Church, and relied on it instead of knowledge and reason. d'Holbach also stated that the church turned people into slaves.
These came to be known as new popular institutions of European social life during the 18th century Age of Enlightenment. Commonly, business, science, religion, and politics were all mentioned in caffeine fueled discussions in these places.
Idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs. "hands-off"
Greatest German philosopher of Enlightenment-separated science and morality into separate branches of knowledge-science could describe nature, it could not provide a guide for morality. Wrote Critique of Pure Reason
Very elaborate and ornate (in decorating or metaphorically, as in speech and writing); relating to a highly ornate style of art and architecture in 18th-century France; pastels dominate the color scheme
Bernard de Fontenelle
direct link between Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment. He was the secretary of the French Royal Academy of Science. He communicated scientific knowledge in a clear way that appealed to the upper classes. Wrote Plurality of Worlds based on a woman talking to her friend about new cosmology
festival prior to Lent in which people eat and drink to excess
A style of art and architecture that emerged in the later 18th century. Part of a general revival of interest in classical cultures, Neoclassicism was characterized by the utilization of themes and styles from ancient Greece and Rome.
A leading neoclassical artist of the age, he captured events such as the Tennis Court Oath and Napoleon's Coronation all in the grandeur of Rome
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