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world history midterm 2018
Terms in this set (100)
What is the name of the social gatherings where philosophers, artists, and writers discussed ideas during the Enlightenment?
What is the term used to describe an absolute ruler or monarch that implemented the ideas of the Enlightenment into the governance of their land?
What is the philosophical movement of the 17th and 18th centuries in which philosophers discussed and wrote about society and government?
What is the French phrase that refers to an economic system in which the government has minimal influence?
Which philosopher believed that people are naturally cruel, greedy and selfish, and therefore they need a very strong government, such as an absolute monarch?
Who advocated for democracy when he wrote that the "general will" of the people would result in the community choosing their best interests rather than the interests of an individual?
Who wrote Two Treatises of Government in which he argues that the government's purpose is to protect the people's natural rights and if the government violates those rights the people have the right to revolt?
Which philosophe developed the idea that in order to restrict its power a government must be divided into a legislative branch, executive branch and a judicial branch?
Who was imprisoned and exiled from France because of his writings about inequality, injustice, and hypocrisy of the Catholic Church and government?
Who upset the French government and Catholic church by spreading the ideas of the Enlightenment and educating the masses by developing the Encyclopedia?
Who argued that with equal education women would gain equality with men in society in her book, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman?
Who was the physiocrat that wrote Wealth of Nations in which he argued for a laissez faire economic system?
How did philosophes and writers get around authorities' censorship?
They wrote works of fiction that hid their ideas
What type of art and architecture was popular during the 17th century and often depicted battles or the lives of saints?
What type of art and architecture developed during the Enlightenment and moved away from religion, was lighter, elegant, and charming?
What type of music and literature became popular during the enlightenment?
Classical music and novels
What is the basic principle of the American system of government which asserts that the people are the source of any and all governmental power, and government can exist only with the consent of the governed?
During France's ancien regime, which estate was the clergy who paid about 2-3% of the population, owned about 10% of the land, and paid no direct taxes?
Who was the financial expert that Louis XVI fired because he suggested taxing the First and Second Estates?
During France's ancien regime which estate included urban workers, resented the privileges of the other estates, was topped by the well-to-do bourgeoisie and paid nearly all of the taxes?
What did the newly formed National Assembly vow to do when they took the Tennis Court Oath?
continue meeting until they created a sound and just constitution
On what date did the people of Paris storm the Bastille, igniting the French Revolution?
July 14, 1789
What famous document was the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen modeled after?
U.S. declaration of Independence
For many years, the king and queen of France lived in the Palace of Versailles, about 12 miles outside of Paris. Why did the king and queen move to Paris in 1789?
they were marched back by a mob of angry women
Who was the one time enlightened despot in Russia that burnt letters from Voltaire and locked up her critics after emigres reported attacks on their privileges, property, religion and lives?
During the French Revolution what type of government did the sans-culottes and Jacobins demand?
Who was convicted of being a traitor to France and beheaded by the guillotine on January 21, 1793?
King Louis XVI
Who was the "incorruptible" that became the leading figure of the Reign of Terror, but eventually fell victim to the hysteria himself and was guillotined?
Who came to power in 1799 in France by replacing the Directory through a popular vote called a plebiscite?
In 1804, what title did Napoleon Bonaparte gain through a plebiscite?
Emperor of France
What was the body of French civil (domestic) laws that was introduced in 1804?
As Napoleon's armies dominated much of Europe, what phrase inspired the French to fight, but also inspired conquered-people to rise up against the foreign invaders?
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
Which European nation was able to resist being conquered by Napoleon's Grand Army by using the scorched-earth policy, which kept important resources from being used by the invading force?
What was Napoleon's final battle?
Battle of Waterloo
What is the name of the assembly of European leaders that used the principle of legitimacy to restore the monarchs to power during their meetings that lasted from September 1814 - June 1815?
Congress of Vienna
What was the system in which Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Great Britain met periodically to discuss any problems affecting peace in Europe?
Concert of Europe
What feeling of pride in one's nation and ethnic group did Napoleon give rise to when he conquered Europe?
Where did the Industrial Revolution begin?
What was Jethro Tull's contribution to the agricultural revolution?
Through the enclosure movement, the mixing of soils, sharing ideas, and using new farming machines such as Jethro Tull's seed drill, farmers during the 17th and 18th centuries increased the food supply, which reduced starvation, improved health, and increased life expectancy. This, combined with small time farmers being put out of work, caused what migration pattern?
The cotton gin greatly increased the speed at which cotton could be prepared for use to make thread. Who invented the cotton gin?
What machine did James Watt improve?
What was the first product to be produced industrially?
What is the term for people who were entrepreneurs who successfully started and operated businesses or others who gained the money for a comfortable lifestyle, which made up the new middle class?
What class of people lived in tenements with no running water or sanitation systems?
What is the rapid growth of cities called?
Illegal in Britain during the first half of the 19th century, what were groups of workers that wished to initiate worker reforms such as an increase in pay, reasonable work hours, and safer working conditions?
What is a system of ideas and ideals, especially one that forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy?
Which ideology believed the people as a whole, rather than individuals, should own and operate the means of production, and then share in the wealth?
Who despised capitalism because it creates prosperity for a few and poverty for many?
What empire ruled the Middle East and North Africa for several centuries between the 17th and 20th centuries?
Which nation gained independence from French rule as a result of a successful slave revolt, which lasted from 1791 through 1804 and was lead by Toussaint L'Ouverture?
Who started Mexico's fight for independence from Spanish rule?
Father Miguel Hidalgo
During what year did Mexico gain independence from Spain?
Who used Napoleon's overthrow of Spain as an opportunity to fight for independence in South America?
Who was the primary leader of the movement to liberate Argentina, Chile, and Peru?
Jose De San Martin
Which nation was the first in Asia to industrialize?
Who invented the assembly line to mass produce automobiles?
What is a large company in which entrepreneurs sold stocks in order to fund growth and development
What was the nickname given to owners of large corporations who paid workers very little, created monopolies to control entire markets, and became unimaginably wealthy?
What was the nickname given to owners of large corporations that expressed appreciation of the jobs they created, the charities they funded and the materials and services they provided?
Captains of Industry
Who showed the connection between microbes and disease, developed vaccines, and pasteurization - the process to kill disease in milk?
Who helped make hospitals safe places for patients and founded the first school of nursing?
What did the women's suffrage movement work toward?
women's right to vote
What areas of earth-studies-based science caused controversy because they challenged the biblical accounts of earth's creation and history?
archaeology and geology
Whose theory of natural selection caused controversy because it argued that life forms have evolved over the course of millions of years?
What is the phrase that took Charles Darwin's findings about plant and animal life and applied that to the human race in an attempt to justify imperialism?
What was the Christian movement that encouraged people to help those in need?
What is a system of politics or principles based on practical rather than moral or ideological considerations?
Who was the Prussian prime minister that led the unification of Germany?
Otto von Bismarck
During what year was Germany united?
Which European nation's unification movement was led by the king of Sardinia-Piedmont Emmanuel II and prime minister Count Cavour?
Who was the Italian nationalist that helped unify Italy by capturing the southern Italian states and handing them over to King Emmanuel II?
King Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of Italy in 1861. During what year did Italy claim Rome, thus completing the Unification of Italy?
What is an organized massacre of a particular ethnic group, in particular that of Jews in Russia and eastern Europe?
What is the time period of the British empire that lasted from 1836 - 1901, which was named after the Queen of that time?
What is suffrage?
the right to vote
What is trade between countries without quotas, tariffs, or other restrictions?
What was the campaign against slavery and the slave trade?
During what year did Britain become the first European nation to ban the slave trade?
What was the British response to the Irish Potato Famine?
The British made them keep selling the other crops
What is the domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region?
What was the economic motivator driving imperialism?
Access to natural resources and new markets for finished products
What is the idea that European races are superior to all others, and imperial domination of "weaker" races was simply nature's way of improving the human species?
Who was the Belgian monarch that is responsible for the destruction of the Congo's people through his efforts to extract as much wealth as possible from rubber and ivory?
King Leopold II
What was the 1884 conference in which European powers carved up Africa among themselves?
By 1914, what were the only two African nations that remained free from imperialism?
Ethiopia and Liberia
What is the name of the canal that connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea?
Which colony was the crown jewel of the British empire?
What revolt was caused by the British East India Company being intolerant of its Indian soldiers' religious practices?
What was the name of the peasant uprising against the Qing Dynasty between 1850 and 1864?
What was the name of the 1900 rebellion in which a group called The Righteous Harmonious Fists launched an attempt to rid China of foreigners?
What was the name of the policy in which the United States and other imperialist powers agreed to keep China open for trade with all?
Open Door Policy
Japan gained trading rights with China and what island by winning the First Sino-Japanese War?
Who was the caudillo that led Mexico through the loss of Texas and the Mexican American War in which the U.S. took the northern half of Mexico?
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
Between the years 1868 and 1912, Japan studied Western ways, adopted a government similar to Germany's, developed industry, and reformed society. What is this time period known as?
What was the name of the 1898 war in which the United States became an overseas imperial force by taking the Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico and control over Cuba?
What was the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine?
United States claimed "international police power" in Latin America
What role did geography play in Japan imperializing surrounding areas?
Because Japan was an island, it needed natural resources and more living space.
How did the United States gain the right to build and control the Panama Canal?
They backed a revolt by Panamanians against Columbia
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