HIS test #3
Terms in this set (48)
Compromise of 1850
(1) California admitted as free state, (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, (both are open to slavery) (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) new fugitive slave law (makes it illegal to assist slaves escaping bondage); advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas
Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852)
Harriet Beecher Stowe's widely read novel that dramatized the horrors of slavery. It heightened Northern support for abolition and escalated the sectional conflict.
Election of 1852: end of the Whig party
By this time the Whig party was so weakened that the Democrats swept Franklin Pierce into office by a huge margin. Eventually the Whigs became part of the new Republican party. Winfield Scott ran for the whig party and lost
1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty. destroys pierce's presidency and democratic party.
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent. (9 black students allowed to attend a white high school)
John Brown; Pottawatomie Creek
Was against slavery. On the night of May 24, 1856, John Brown and his company of Free State volunteers murdered five men settled along the Pottawatomie Creek in southeastern Kansas.
A policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
After the whig party fell apart, became this, also known as the "American Party". Political party of the 1850s that was anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant. Disi not openly publicize their beliefs
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Supreme Court case that decided US Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in federal territories and slaves, as private property, could not be taken away without due process - basically slaves would remain slaves in non-slave states and slaves could not sue because they were not citizens. Chief Justice Roger B Tauny
John Brown and Harper's Ferry
He wanted to start a slave rebellion that swept through the South. In 1859 Brown, 13 whites and 5 blacks took over the arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia. Brown was caught and hanged. This further separated the North and the South. Spurs southern militias
1858 Senate Debate, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, Douglas supported pop-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate
Doctrine developed by Stephen Douglas that said the exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property. It was unpopular with Southerners, and thus cost him the election.
Election of 1856: Republican Party, Know-Nothing Party
Millard Fillmore ran as the "know-nothing" party and loses
A Kentucky slave who escaped with her family to Ohio; she killed her own daughter rather than see her returned to slavery by federal marshals
Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union. John C Breckenridge becomes vice president.
Formal withdrawal of states or regions from a nation
First Wave of Secession
Begins with South Carolina. Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. Between December 1860 and February 1861. Forms confederacy- Montgomery AL becomes capital and Jefferson Davis is selected as president
Lincoln's Inaugural Address
Stated that, "no state...can lawfully get out of the Union" but pledged there would be no war unless the South started it. The south begins the war of the rebellion (civil war)
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War. Robert Anderson (union) Pierre Beauregard (confederate)
Civil war begins
4:30 am on april 12, 1861 at ft sumter when Beauregard orders confederates to fire
Second Wave of Secession
North Carolina, Tennessee, Arkansas, and Virginia all secede when Lincoln asks for troops. Richmond, VA becomes new confederate capital
First Bull Run
First major battle of the Civil War, in which untrained Northern troops and civilian picnickers fled back to Washington. This battle helped boost Southern morale and made the North realize that this would be a long war. General Irvin Mcdowell (union) General Beauregard (confederate) and Thomas J Jackson (Stonewall jackson) (confederate)
Peninsular Campaign (March - July 1862)
Union commander George McClellan devised this plan to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia by sending 110,000 men up the peninsula between the York and James rivers. Advised of Northern maneuvers, Southern commander Joseph Johnston detached a force to defend the peninsula. He also sent a small unit (led by Stonewall Jackson) that crushed Union reinforcements in the West. After Johnston was wounded, replaced him with Robert E. Lee. in the Seven Days' Battles (June 25-July 1), the Confederates broke through Union defenses, leading to McClellan's retreat down the James toward Harrison's Landing, and failure of the campaign.
Ulysses S. Grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
Grant captured this fort on the Cumberland and because of the capture, all of Kentucky and most of western Tennessee came under Union control.
a surrender in which no guarantees are given to the surrendering party. Simon Bolivar sends note to grant asking to negotiate the surrender of ft donelson, grant replies "no terms except unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepter"
Battle of Shiloh (April 1862)
Bloody Civil War battle on the Tennessee-Mississippi border that resulted in the deaths of more than 23,000 soldiers and ended in a marginal Union victory. Grant (union) Albert Sidney Johnston (confederate)-believed to be the most capable officer of confederacy, dies and Beauregard takes command
Battle of Antietam (sharpsburg) (1862)
Single bloodiest day of the American Civil War; Union victory that turned back a Confederate invasion of the North.
Allowed Lincoln to issue the
proclaiming the freedom of slaves in any confederate state the union captures, shifting the war objectives of the North.
Battle of Fredericksburg (December 1862)
Decisive victory in Virginia for Confederate Robert E. Lee, who successfully repelled a Union attack on his lines. Lee and his men defeated Ambrose "sideburn" Burnside (union) from Marye's hill. Northern lights visible after battle
Battle of Chancellorsville (1863)
Joseph E hooker (union) replaces Burnside. The Union was defeated again with the Confederacy being led by Robert E Lee. General Thomas Stonewall Jackson (confederate) was accidentally wounded and killed here by one of his own men.
A group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and the civil war. They sympathized with the South during the Civil War. Liked to be called "sons of liberty"
Clement L. Vallandigham
Prominent Copperhead (anti-war democrat) who was an ex-congressman from Ohio, demanded an end to the war, and was banished to the Confederacy for criticizing Lincoln and speaking out against the war.
Battle of Gettysburg (July 1863)
Civil War battle in Pennsylvania that ended in Union victory, spelling doom for the Confederacy, which never again managed to invade the North. Site of General George Pickett's daring but doomed charge on the Northern lines. George Gordon Meade (union) Robert E Lee (Confederate)
New York City Draft Riots
July 1863 just after the Battle at Gettysburg. Mobs of Irish working-class men and women roamed the streets for four days until federal troops suppressed them. They loathed the idea of being drafted to fight a war on behalf of slaves who, once freed, would compete with them for jobs.
Battle of Atlanta (July 22, 1864)
Union victory; this one day battle allowed Union forces to inch closer to the city in the Atlanta Campaign; was not the battle that allowed Union Troops to occupy the city. William Tecumseh Sherman (union) John Bell Hood (replaces Joseph Johnston) (Confederate)
A series of brutal clashes between Ulysses S. Grant's (union) and Robert E. Lee's (confederate) armies in Virginia, leading up to Grant's capture of Richmond in April of 1865. Having lost Richmond, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse.
Fought during the wilderness campaign, from June 1 to June 3, 1864, near Cold Harbor, Virginia, it culminated in the slaughter of more than 13,000 Union soldiers attempting to advance to the Confederate entrenchment. The Confederates lost fewer than 2,000 men, and even they were shocked by the carnage caused by the folly of the Union commanders.
Battle of Cedar Creek
Phillip Sheridan's (union) decisive victory of the Shenandoah Valley campaign over Jubal Early (confederate)
Surrender at Appomattox
On April 9, 1865, General Lee surrendered to General Grant at Appomattox Court House in Virginia.
Impeachment of Andrew Johnson (Lincolns VP who becomes president after his murder)
Johnson was impeached for the charge of High Crimes and Misdemeanors on February 24, 1868 of which one of the articles of impeachment was violating the Tenure of Office Act. He had removed Edwin M. Stanton, the Secretary of War, from office and replaced him with Adjutant General Lorenzo Thomas
Tenure of Office Act (1867)
Denied the president the power to remove any executive officer who had been appointed by a past president without the advice and consent of the Senate; passed over Johnson's veto. Radical attempt to further diminish Andrew Johnson's authority. Johnson violated the law by removing Edwin Stanton as secretary of war, and the House of Representatives impeached him over his actions.
the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments to the United States Constitution, adopted between 1865 and 1870, the five years immediately following the Civil War.
The constitutional amendment ratified after the Civil War that forbade slavery and involuntary servitude.
A constitutional amendment giving full rights of citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the United States, except for American Indians.
The constitutional amendment adopted in 1870 to extend suffrage to African Americans. prohibits restrictions on the right to vote based on race and color.
Ulysses S. Grant (post war)
elected president in 1868 and 1872. Corruption took over during his time in the white-house. His family went bankrupt after NY scam, regained fortune after he wrote memoirs, diagnosed with throat cancer and dies at 63
Robert E Lee (post war)
has no desire to leave Virginia, becomes president of Washington College, wanted to aid the restoration of peace and harmony, died of a stroke at 63
Stolen Election of 1876
Samuel J. Tilden (democrat) won the electoral votes. People claimed the voting was unfair and rigged. Creates the electoral commission, made up of 15 members: 7 democrats, 7 republicans and 1 independent. independent resigns and position is filled by republican (becomes 8 against 7). the commission votes to give electoral votes to Rutherford B.Hayes in states where voting was "unfair", Hayes becomes president.
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