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World Religions - Exam 3
Terms in this set (135)
Who was the second son of Abraham?
Who was his mother?
What was Jacob's nickname?
means "one who wrestles with God"
Where does the word Judaism come from?
The tribe of Judah, the descendants of one of the 12 sons of Jacob
Were do the Ashkenazi Jews come from?
Germany and eastern Europe
Where do the Shepardic Jews come from?
Spain, Portugal, northern Africa
Where do the Mizrachi Jews come from?
Middle Eastern countries such as Yemen and Iraq
Explain the two different ways of being Jewish.
Jew by Birth
Jew by Choice (conversion)
When is someone no longer considered a Jew?
When they convert to another religion
Name and explain the belief of ancient Jews that set them apart from all other ancient peoples.
The Jews are a "chosen people": God chose them to teach and be witnesses to ethical monotheism to the whole world.
According to the Hebrew Scriptures, what is the expression that describes the nature of the eternal God?
"I am who am"
How does Judaism view history?
God created the universe and is actively involved in people's lives creating agreements or covenants. God creates history, acts in history by establishing covenants and is the goal of history. History is thought of as linear (from beginning to an end), not cyclical as in the Asian religions.
Who was the Jewish prophet who led the Exodus?
According to many historians, about when did the Exodus take place?
What is the meaning of the Exodus?
Moses led the Jews out of slavery in Egypt so that they could return to live in freedom in the land of their ancestors.
Where did the prophet receive the Ten Commandments?
Who destroyed Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem? In which year?
Who destroyed the Second Temple in Jerusalem? In which year?
Which part of the Second Temple area is still standing which serves as a place for Jews to pray?
What is the name of the movement which began in the late 19th century C.E. to create a Jewish homeland in the Middle East?
In which year was the modern country of Israel created?
Give three reasons why the modern country of Israel is important to many Jews.
1. Land of the Bible
2. Security (the law of return in light of the Holocaust)
3. It is the only country where Jews live as a majority.
What does the word "prophet" mean?
"someone who speaks for God"
Name three Jewish prophets.
According to the Prophetic Principle, what is the prerequisite of political stability?
What are the Hebrew names and their meaning of the three Hebrew Scriptures?
Because of the names of the three divisions of the Hebrew Scriptures, how do many Jews refer to their scriptures?
Give the names of the five books that make up the first division of the Hebrew Scriptures.
How many commandments are mentioned in the first five books of the Hebrew Scriptures?
According to many modern biblical scholars, what are the names of the four sources of the first division and some of the second division of the Hebrew Scriptures, and about when where they written?
1. Yahwist (900s B.C.E.)
2. Elohist (700s B.C.E.)
3. Deuteronomist (600s B.C.E)
4. Priestly (500s B.C.E)
What is the meaning of the Hebrew word "Messiah"?
What are two different biblical meanings of the Messiah?
1. The Messiah is a political-religious king
2. The Messiah is the person whom God will send to establish God's kingdom/reign/rule of peace, love and justice on earth
What is the difference between the Jewish belief and the Christian belief about the Messiah?
Judaism: Messiah is a one-part event that has not yet taken place
Christianity: Messiah is a two-part event. The first part was Jesus, the second part is the "Second Coming of Christ".
How do modern Jews disagree about the Messiah?
Orthodox: believe the Messiah will be a human person whom God will send in the future.
Conservative & Reform Judaism: Messiah will be a future "messianic age" of peace, love, and justice for all.
What is the Talmud?
The written version of the Oral Law
What does the Talmud contain?
Commentary on the commandments of the Torah and stories/sayings of the ancient rabbis
What are the names of the two major parts of the Talmud, and when was each completed?
1. Mishnah 200 C.E.
2. Gemara 600 C.E.
What are the three branches of modern Judaism, and why are they different from each other?
Orthodox Judaism: believe that both the written laws in Hebrew scriptures and the oral laws of the Talmud were revealed by God to Moses on Mount Sinai and must therefore be followed in any age. Follow both the TaNaKh and Talmud to heart.
Conservative Judaism: Believe that the written laws in the Hebrew Scriptures were revealed by God to moses on Mount Sinai but some laws and traditions of the Talmud are the work of Jewish leaders over the centuries and can therefore be modernized. Follow the TaNaKh to heart but the Talmud can be debated.
Reform Judaism: Believe that both the written laws and the oral laws are the works of Jewish leaders over many centuries. Therefore, both the written law and oral laws must be taken seriously but not all of these laws must be followed in modern times in order to be a good Jew. You don't have to follow the TaNaKh or the Talmud to heart.
e considered a good Jew.
Give two examples showing the difference between various Jewish groups concerning different interpretations of living Jewish tradition.
Orthodox Jews don't drive cars on the Sabbath, Reform Jews do.
Orthodox Jews don't allow women to be rabbis, Reform Jews do.
According to the Jewish dietary laws in the first section of the Hebrew Scriptures, what are the three conditions for land animals to be considered kosher?
1. Have split hooves
2. Chew their cud
3. Are domesticated
What are two things that water animals must have to be considered kosher?
No shellfish or catfish
Which two kinds of food may not be eaten at the same time?
Meat & dairy
This custom comes from the rabbinic interpretation of which sentence that is repeated three times in the first division of the Hebrew Scriptures?
"You shall not boil a kid in its mother's milk."
The Jewish Sabbath that commemorates God's day of rest on the seventh day of Creation
Marks the beginning of the Jewish New Year
The Day of Atonement
Rejoicing of the Law
The Festival of Lights
Holocaust remembrance day
The feast of weeks
The Feast of Tabernacles
"Hear, O Israel! The Lord is our God, the Lord is one."
Small leather cubical boxes which are strapped on the forehead and on the upper arm near the heart
Small container holding a small scroll of Deuteronomy
Peace and wholeness
Mending/repairing the world
A Jewish priest
Jewish religious laws concerning the eating of meat
Laws written in the Hebrew Scriptures and in the Oral Law from the Talmud and other rabbinic commentaries
A sect of Orthodox Judaism that was started by Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov
Ceremony for Jewish boys/girls when they assume adult responsibility in the religion and read the Torah publicly
bar mitzvah (boys) and bat mitzvah (girls)
The canopy under which a Jewish wedding takes place
"seven": Jewish burial ceremony
Small hat work by some Jews as a reminder for God's presence above them
Six-pointed star, Star of David
What and when were the three stages in the separation of Christianity from Judaism?
1. The Council of Jerusalem (50 A.D.)
2. The Writing of the Gospels in the Christian Scriptures (70-100 A.D.)
3. Christianity becomes the official religion of the Roman Empire (4th century A.D.)
For each stage of separation of Christianity from Judaism, give the question that was answered in the negative by Christian leaders.
1. Must a Gentile become a Jew in order to become a Christian?
2. Does Judaism remain a path of salvation after the death of Jesus?
3. May a Christian observe any Jewish practices?
What is meant by the "deicide" charge of early Christian leaders?
"Killing God". The switched blame for Jesus' death from the Romans who killed him to those Jews who did not accept him as the Messiah. All Jews are therefore guilty of deicide.
What is meant by the "supersessionist teaching" of early Christian leaders?
The ancient Christian teaching that Christianity is the "new Israel" and that it has superseded or replaced Judaism, the "old Israel".
Besides the deicide charge and the supersessionist teaching, what are three other elements of the teaching known as "Christian anti-Judaism"?
1. Jews are a blind people.
2. Jews are a people who cannot be saved.
3. Jews are a demonic people.
Give three examples to show that the Nazi's anti-Jewish legislation and their treatment of Jews were not original.
1. Burning of the Talmud vs Burning of the books in Germany
2. Jews and Christians can't eat together vs Jews barred from dining cars
3. No intermarriage and intercourse vs Law for the protection of German Blood and Honor
4.) Jews obligated to pay taxes for support of the Church to the same extent as Christians, Synod of Gerona 1078 vs The Sozialausglechsabgabe
5.) The Marking of Jewish clothes with a badge, 4th Lateran Council, 1215 - Decree of September 1st, 1941
6.) Compulsory Ghettos, Synod of Breslau 1267 - Order by Heydrich, September 21, 1939.
What were three incredible lies that some medieval Christians told about the Jews in order to justify the torture and murder of some Jews by some Christians?
1. ritual murder
2. host desecration
3. well poisoning
Give three recommendations that Martin Luther made in a sermon in 1543 about what should happen to Jews in Germany so that they would no longer live in ghettos but be assimilated into Christian society.
1. Set fire to their synagogues
2. Destroy their houses
3. Force them to do hard manual labor
What is the name of the 19th century forgery that has since been published around the world which blames Jews for trying to take over the world?
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
What are the three major themes of Adolf Hitler's autobiography Mein Kampf?
1. Hatred of the Versailles Treaty
2. Hatred of International Communism
3. Hatred of Jews
Name the six death camps which the Nazis established for what they called the "Final Solution".
In which country were the Nazi death camps located? Why were they located there?
Poland had the largest Jewish population.
Approximately how many Jews were murdered by the Nazis between 1933 and 1945?
What percentage of European and Russian Jews murdered by the Nazis?
What percentage of the world Jewish population was murdered by the Nazis?
Explain three of the causes of the Holocaust.
1. Centuries of Christian anti-Judaism
2. 19th century "racist" antisemitism, people mistakenly defined Jews as a race
3. Terrorist political party became the government (Nazis)
4. The Nazi's developed a bureaucracy which blindly followed orders and the technology for carrying out mass murder.
5. The indifference or silence of some world leaders concerning Nazi Germany's treatment of European Jews. Except for a few notable examples, not many governments made the rescue of European Jews a priority.
Who was the pope of the Catholic Church during the Holocaust?
Explain the controversy about how the Pope responded to the Holocaust.
"Policy of impartiality": never publicly embarrassed the Nazis even though he knew what they were doing
What does the Second Vatican Council's "Nostra Aetate #4" teach about Jews and Judaism?
1. Rejected the supersessionist teaching
2. Rejected the deicide charge
3. Condemned the hatred and persecutions against Jews throughout the history of Christianity
What are three things that the 1998 Vatican document "We Remember: Reflections on the Shoah" acknowledged?
1. The many centuries of Christian anti-Judaism
2. The sins of many Christians during the Holocaust
3. Those Christians who protected and rescued Jews during the Holocaust
What are three lessons of the Holocaust?
1. "Never Again": the motto of Holocaust survivors
2. People must speak out against the blasphemy of "historical revisionists" and neo-Nazi groups who deny that the Holocaust even happened.
3. Prejudice can lead to genocide
4. Nations need to enforce the "Responsibility to Protect" principle
5. An international Genocide Bureau and early warning systems need to be created in order to identify potential genocidal situations.
What was the main message of Rabbi Jesus of Nazareth?
"The kingdom of God is at hand."
What does Jesus' message mean?
Announced the coming of the reign of God: the beginning of a time of peace, love, and justice for all.
Which language did Jesus speak?
In which language were the books of the Christian Scriptures written?
What are the names of the four official gospels in the Christian Scriptures?
When do most modern biblical scholars believe that each of the gospels was written?
Matthew: 80s A.D.
Mark: around 70 A.D.
Luke: 80s A.D.
John: 90s A.D.
What do biblical scholars mean by the "synoptic problem" and the "Q" source?
Synoptic problem: explaining why the synoptic gospels have many stories in common
"Q" source: stories that are in Matthew and Luke, but not in Mark.
Which two gospels in the Christian Scriptures have stories about Jesus' birth?
Matthew and Luke
In which town do the Christmas stories say Jesus was born? Why do they say this?
Bethlehem: King David's home town, following the prophecy of Micah
Give 3 differences between these two infancy narratives.
Matthew: written mainly for Jewish Christians, genealogy from Abraham to Joseph, emphasizes Joseph and his dreams
Luke: written mainly for Gentile Christians, genealogy from Joseph to Adam, emphasizes Mary and her submission to God's will
For early Christians, what did the Greek letters for "fish" stand for?
"Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior"
How was Jesus' life and teaching different from the Sadducees?
He was not a priest.
How was Jesus' life and teaching different from the Essenes?
He was not a monk.
How was Jesus' life and teaching different from the Zealots?
He was not a military leader.
How was Jesus' life and teaching different from the Pharisees?
He emphasized God's compassion and forgiveness of sinners.
What are the two kinds of stories about Jesus after his death that produced the Christian Church and its Christology?
1. Empty tomb stories
2. Stories of appearances of the Risen Christ
What does the resurrection of Christ mean, and what does it not mean?
A total and radical transformation of one's whole personality into God's eternal life that is not limited by space or time (not a resuscitation of a dead body back into ordinary earthly life)
What are some differences between the way many non-Christians view Jesus and the way Christians view Jesus?
Jews: Jesus was a famous rabbi
Muslims: Jesus was a prophet
Hindus: Jesus was a divine incarnation
Buddhists: Jesus was a buddha
Explain the Christian belief in the Trinity.
The nature of the one God who is "Father" (personal Creator and Sustainer of the universe), "Son" (divine incarnation, Jesus), and "Holy Spirit" (immanent divine spirit of history and the "spirit of truth")
What did Gnosticism deny?
The full humanity of Jesus
What is the name of the creed written in 325 A.D. that defined the Trinity?
The Nicene Creed
The Nicene Creed was written in order to counteract which heretical teaching?
What did this heretical teaching deny?
Arianism denies Jesus' full divinity
In which year did Christianity become the official religion of the Roman Empire?
How did becoming the the official religion of the Roman Empire change Christianity's teaching about war?
Christians were pacifists during the first three centuries of Christianity, but then followed St. Augustine's "just war teaching" which allows Christians to fight in wars under very strict conditions.
In which year did Christianity split into the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church?
What is the Latin word that Western European Christians added to the creed that defined the Trinity? What does it mean in English?
Filioque: "and from the Son"
Give three other reasons for this Great Schism.
1. The nature of the authority of the Bishop of Rome (Pope)
2. Culture and language (Latin vs. Greek)
3. Priestly celibacy vs. married clergy
Why did Martin Luther criticize the selling of indulgences?
He thought that people should not be taught that you can buy your way into heaven
What do Protestant Christians mean by "justification by faith alone"?
A person is saved or justified before God only by their faith in Jesus Christ
According to Roman Catholic Christianity, who is the earthly leader of the Church?
Why is the Pope the earthly leader of the Church?
Jesus gave Peter this authority as the first pope when he left.
What is meant by "papal infallibility"?
The pope alone has the authority to teach without error, but only on matters of faith and morals
How many books are in a Catholic Bible?
How many books are in most Protestant Bibles?
Why is there this difference in numbers of books in Catholic vs. Protestant Bibles?
Protestants do not accept some of the books in the Catholic Bible because they were written in Aramaic/Greek
Name four books that are in a Catholic Bible which are not in most Protestant Bibles.
Name and describe the two basic ways of interpreting biblical stories.
Literalist: interprets the stories of the Bible literally
Contextualist: takes the stories of the Bible seriously by studying the text and its context
Who began the Lutheran Church?
Who began the Presbyterian Church?
Who began the Anglican/Episcopal Church?
Who began the Methodist Church?
Who began the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers)?
Who began the Jehovah's Witnesses?
Charles Russell of Pennsylvania
Who began the Church of Christ, Scientist?
Mary Baker Eddy
Who began the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints?
Joseph Smith, Jr. of New York State
What is the name of the book which the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints adds to the Bible?
The Book of Mormon
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