APWH S1 final learning curve
Terms in this set (217)
Most early civilizations before 600 BCE shared what characteristics...
Urban centers, growing populations, and writing systems
Which of the geographic advantages was shared by Egypt and Mesopotamia
Access to water for irrigation and other uses
Historians often consider Neolithic Era a turning point, which supports that theory
Denser populations specialized labor led to cities
All of the following were sites of early agriculture except
Rhine Valley (Germany)
The development of writing led to all of the advantages for more complex societies except
Empowered village peasants and slaves to fight for rights
Which of the following occured as a result of development of agriculture
Population density increased
The mandate of Heaven was a belief held by China that
A good ruler possessed a divine right to govern
Mesopotamian law code is well known and famous, why didn't Egypt have similar codes
The pharaoh as god on earth was the source of all law
Archaeological evidence indicates the Paleolithic hunter gatherer societies used which tech
Controlled use fire for warmth and aid in Hunting and foraging
Which of the following is not generally considered to be an attribute of civilization
The absence of social class divisions
Which of the early river valley civilizations is noted for its extensive sewage system
Which of the following BCE dates is generally regarded as the start of the Neolithic Revolution
8,000 B.C.E (Agricultural Revolution)
Why was Egypt known as the Gift of the Nile
Regular flooding of the NIle and its abundant silt deposits
Unlike Egypt where there was flooding the Nile, Mesopotamian farmers had to do what?
Construct more extensive systems of irrigation canals
A patriarchal society is said to be
A society that emphasizes men's roles
Mesoamericans did not develop pastoral communities like other regions in the world because
They lacked large domesticated animals for protein and powers
Which domesticated animals is most closely associated with the Americas and early civilizations
Which empire was when all South Asian subcontinent was unified under a single imperial state?
The long period of political chaos in China
Age of Warring States
How was Rome different than the Han dynasty?
They were never unified after their fall
What is a polis?
When Greeks came together in city-states
What is a satraph?
The governor of a province in Persia
Octavian was also known as
Who fought against whom in the Persian War?
Greece and Persia
Belief that the ruler of China holds divinely granted authority as long as he rules well?
The mandate of heaven
Ashoka was known for erecting what?
Though very different from Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism all support the concept of
Life after death
Which of these Chinese ideologies was known for its harshness?
What did Confucianism and Greek rationalism have in common?
A secular approach to understanding the world
Which of the following describes how Confucianism affected Chinese society?
The civil service examination system was based on Confucianism
How was India's social structure different than China?
Indian social groups were defined more rigidly
Someone who seizes power and holds it in violation of the traditions of the community?
The Persian Empire and the Mauryan dynasty were similar enough in that they both
Relied on imperial spies to keep tabs on their distant provinces
Philosopher whose method was to constantly question the assumptions and logic of others
India and China during the classical era were similar in that both societies
Sharp distinction and great inequalities in the social order
Although he died at age 32, he conquered Persia, controlled the Greece, and reached Punjab
Alexander the Great
If a culture lives in imitation of the Greek culture it is called
Which of these religions focused more on the affairs of the world than the divine?
The founder of Buddhism was the Indian prince
What do Confucianism, Hinduism, and Judaism have in common?
Each created guidelines and moral authority for cultures
Emperor who allowed Christians to legalize their faith for the first time in the Roman Empire?
City, famous for its library, designed by Alexander the Great, in Egypt, on the Mediterranean
When the Roman Empire disintegrated, the eastern part of the empire came to be known as
The founder of the Achaemenid Empire and the most famous ruler of Persia
Cyrus the Great
How did the Chinese view merchants?
Very suspicious, people thought that they raised prices
One of the greatest differences between Hinduism and Buddhism is the former emphasis on
The caste system
All of the following were characteristics of both the Qin and Han dynasties except
The Umayyad dynasty was founded by
The Arab Empire that accompanies the spread of Islam stretched from
Spain to India
Is one of the five pillars of Islam/ends at the Kaaba in Mecca, contributed to the spread of Islamic beliefs and values/Pilgrimage
In order for Buddhism to be accepted in China, Chinese Buddhists
Accommodated Buddhism to Chinese values such as filial piety
The veiling of women as a social custom was
Not specifically addressed in the Quran/originally practiced by upper class women/practiced long before Muhammad was born
Which of the following actions was not taken by the Umayyad caliphs
They had a simple lifestyle even in the capital of Damascus
"There is something of a fictional quality to the tribute system" this statement means that
Chinese had little influence in the subordinate lands
Which of the following was NOT a right of Arab women?
Have up to four husbands and a man can have up to four wives//They COULD inherit property/divorce/engage in business ventures
During Abbasid times, the Arabs learned from China the technique of making what?
These defined male masculinity in Song China
Knowledge of art, music, calligraphy, and poetry
Despite cultural borrowing and imitation, Korea was still different from China in that
Aristocrats dominated Korea, bureaucrats (gov. people) dominated Chinese
Which of the following is NOT true with regard to the sharia?
It was created by the prophet Muhammad
The nature of the society into which the prophet Muhammad was born was
A society made up largely of Bedouins and merchants
The Five Pillars are to Muslims AS
The Noble Eight fold Path is to Buddhists
Which of the following was NOT a major technological innovation of Tang and Song China
Movable type printing//They did do gunpowder, papermaking, and magnetic compass
Which of the following was true of Sufis
They were very effective missionaries/they sought an emotional and mystical union with Allah/they tolerated observances of some non-Islamic customs
What was the primary reason for the tribute system?
To keep China safe from foreign invaders
The practice of foot binding
Placed women under male supervision
This was a ceremonial movement in the tribute system
Kowtow//bowing in CHina
Is the holy book of Islam
In medieval Japan, professional warriors were called
Muhammad experienced profound spiritual revelations that led him to believe that
He was the last prophet of Allah
Why is the during the Tang and Song dynasties known as the Golden Age
The setting of standards of excellence in arts and literature
Which of the following in NOT correct in describing cultural influences on Islam?
Greek reasoning had an influence on the development of Islam
Compared with the Tang dynasty, the Song dynasty was
The Tang government was run primarily by
Bureaucrats of intellectual merit
Under pressure from authorities in Mecca, Muhammad fled to Medina in 622. Muslims call this
what did migrants to Australia and the Pacific Islands use to get to their destinations?
what was an important development during the Paleolithic period?
humankind spread to inhabit all parts of the globe
what was a feature of society during the Paleolithic era?
what offers evidence that Paleolithic peoples were shifting from a nomadic way of life to a more settled lifestyle?
elaborate burial sites
what distinguished the Agricultural Revolution in the Americas from Agriculture Revolutions elsewhere?
the absence of animals that could be domesticated
what is another name for the Agricultural Revolution?
what factor contributed to the Agricultural Revolution?
a need for additional food
the spread of agriculture through diffusion and migration
resulted in the spread of language groups
what explains why some regions did not make the transition to an agricultural way of life?
environmental conditions were not suitable for farming
what was a result of the Agricultural Revolution?
higher risk of disease and famine
what role did women play in agricultural village societies?
women participated in farming and textile work
what form of society during the Age of Agriculture is considered to have a distinct element of inequality?
what has been advanced as a possible explanation for the origins of the First Civilizations?
the need to organize large-scale irrigation projects
the rulers of which First Civilization based their authority on the Mandate of Heaven?
what is a feature found in some cities in the First Civilizations?
what have scholars advanced as a possible explanation for the emergence of patriarchy in the First Civilizations?
emergence of large-scale warfare with professionally led armies
what represents a way that class distinctions were displayed in the First Civilizations?
manner of a person's burial
what is an example of how social class affected gender roles?
women from the upper classes were expected to stay at home, while women from the lower classes had to go out in public to work
what human accomplishments emerged with the First Civilizations?
what statement about ancient Egypt is true?
the state was ruled by pharaohs who were believed to be gods in human form
what is an example of a way that the rulers in the First Civilizations displayed their power?
what best describes the Mesopotamian outlook on life and death?
people are caught in an inherently disorderly world without much hope of a blessed life beyond
what contributed to the declining power of the Egyptian pharaohs by 2400 b.c.e?
local officials and nobles assumed greater authority
what provides evidence of interaction and exchange among the First Civilizations and surrounding regions in the ancient world?
persian political organization included what feature?
lower-level officials drawn from local authorities
what was a unique feature of political life in classical Greece?
the idea of free male citizens running the affairs of state
a major development that occurred during the Hellenistic era was
the spread of Greek culture throughout most of the ancient world
the conquests of which leader contributed to the widespread dissemination of Greek culture during the Hellenistic era?
alexander the great
Athens' leadership in which event launched Athens on a path to establish its dominance over other city-states in the region?
when Germanic tribes entered into the western part of the Roman Empire, they
produced a hybrid culture that drew on both Germanic and Roman elements
what expresses the basic difference between what the Roman Empire and the Han dynasty believed was the key to good government?
the Roman Empire emphasized good laws while the Han dynasty emphasized good men
in contrast to what followed after the collapse of the Han dynasty in China, the collapse of the Roman Empire
led to the emergence of highly decentralized political systems
when the Roman Empire disintegrated in 476 C.E., the eastern part of the empire came to be known as
the Byzantine Empire
in contrast to the Roman Empire, the process of empire formation in China
had precedents to follow
what had been put forward to explain why empires were much less prominent in India than in China?
india's unparalleled cultural diversity
the Persian Empire and the Mauryan dynasty were similar in that both
relied on imperial spies to keep tabs on distant provinces
what classical religions and philosophies focused more on affairs of this world than on the realm of the divine and its relationship to human life?
what systems of thought provided inspiration for the harsh reunification of China under Qin Shihuangdi?
a follower of Daoism would
withdraw from politics
Buddhism and Hinduism are similar in that they both
offered hope for final release from the cycle of rebirth
what may have played a role in the decline of Buddhism in India?
Buddhism was absorbed into a reviving Hinduism
what reflects a Zoroastrian idea that can be found in Judaism, Christianity and Islam?
the concepts of heaven and hell
what refers to a feature of the conception of the divine found in Judaism?
an understanding of God as engaged in history and demanding social justice
what represents a way that Greek scholarship influenced the world?
Greek texts were translated into Arabic and stimulated Muslim intellectuals
Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were associated with
what did Confucius, Zarathustra, and Siddhartha Gautama share in common
they were all historical founders of philosophical or religious traditions
both the Buddha and Jesus
were transformed by their followers into gods
what did Buddhism and Christianity have in common?
they both started out as an effort to reform the religions from they which they had come, but soon emerged as separate religions
Wang Mang's reform program following his seizure of the Chinese throne in 8 c.e. included
government loans to peasant families
china was unique in the ancient world in the extent to which
its social organization was shaped by the actions of the state
India and China during the classical era were similar in that in both societies
sharp distinctions and great inequalities characterized the social order
membership in a jati was based on a person's
the inequalities of the caste system received support from
hindu notions of karma, dharma, and rebirth
once the system of jatis in India was established,
an individual jati could slowly raise its standing in relation to other jatis in the local hierarchy by acquiring land or wealth
in what way was the Yellow Turban Rebellion in Han China and the Spartacus Rebellion in the Roman Empire similar?
both were large-scale, violent reactions to oppressive conditions
during the classical era, slaves comprised more than one-third of the total population in
the Roman Empire
the growth of democracy in classical Athens was accompanied by
the simultaneous growth of slavery on a massive scale
how did the centuries of political fragmentation and conflict following the fall of the Han Empire affect the lives of Chinese women?
Buddhism and Daoism grew in popularity, resulting in some loosening of the strict patriarchy supported by Confucianism
in general, patriarchal systems that restricted women's lives were weakest
in the early years of a civilization's development
although the practice of patriarchy varied in the classical civilizations, they all
defined women's roles in reproductive terms
how did the absence of most animals capable of domestication affect developments in the Americas?
no pastoral societies developed
how did the environmental features of Africa affect the continent?
Persistent warm temperatures accelerated the decomposition of humus, resulting in a less productive agriculture
the maya and axum were similar in that both
possessed written scripts
in their political organization, the Maya were most like
the city-states of classical Greece
Mesoamerican and Andean cultures were similar in that both
were dominated by cities or regional states rather than a single empire
what statement about the civilizations of the Andes region is true?
the need for elaborate irrigation projects helped create strong states in the region
Archeological evidence suggests that the village located at Chavín was the center for
a religious movement that spread throughout much of the Andes
What do the remains of the Moche civilization suggest was important to its rulers?
war and ceremony
what was ab advantage Bantu-speaking farmers had in their encounters with gathering and hunting groups?
what did the Bantu settlements in Africa have that the communities in North America east of the Mississippi lacked?
a common language
both the cultures that took shape in the Chaco canyon region and those that took shape in the Mississippi River valley
were based on corn-based agriculture introduced from Mesoamerica
outside of the mesoamerican and Andean regions, most people living in the Americas in the pre-Columbian era
obtained their food supply by gathering and hunting
the trade conducted along the Silk Roads was largely a "relay trade" because
goods were passed down the line rather than carried by one merchant along the entire route
how did Buddhism change as it spread along the Silk Roads?
the gods of many peoples along the Silk Roads were incorporated as bodhisattvas
in contrast to the Silk Roads, the Sea Roads of the Indian Ocean
carried more products for a mass market
how did the sudden rise of Islam in the seventh century affect Indian Ocean commerce?
muslim merchants and sailors established communities of traders from East Africa to the south China coast
which of the following describes the Swahili civilization's relationship with the people who lived in the interior?
Swahili cities operated as intermediaries for people from the interior to sell their goods to Arab merchants
the sahara held rich deposits of which highly valued commodity?
the states that emerged in West Africa between 500 and 1600 shared which of the following characteristics
a reputation in the wider world for great riches
the Sand Roads linked North Africa and the Mediterranean world to the land and peoples of
interior west africa
what characterizes the networks of exchange in the Americas?
networks were local, with the most active links within rather than between regions
in which third-wave civilization did the state largely control trade, preventing a professional merchant class from emerging?
between 500 and 1500, the civilizations of mesoamerica and the andes
seem to have had little direct contact with each other
what contributed to the doubling of the Chinese population during the Tang and Song dynasties?
the adoption of a fast-ripening strain of rice from Vietnam
what is a reason that the Tang and Song dynasties are regarded as a "golden age" in China?
the setting of standards of excellence in art and literature
what explains why women's lives were more restricted in the Song dynasty than in the Tang dynasty?
the revival of confucianism
china's most enduring and intense interaction with outsiders was with
the nomadic pastoral peoples of the northern steppes
Chinese interaction with the northern nomads during the Tang dynasty resulted in
the evolution of a mixed Chinese/Turkic culture in northern China
what describes Korea's relationship with China?
its capital city of Kumsong was modeled directly on the Chinese capital of Chang'an
in what respect was Japan's borrowing of Chinese culture different from the experiences of Korea and Vietnam?
Japan's borrowing was wholly voluntary rather than occurring under conditions of direct military threat or outright occupation
the emergence of the samurai reflected Japan's
decentralized political structure
what was a factor in the growth of Buddhism in China after 300 c.e.?
increased disorder following the collapse of the Han dynasty discredited Confucianism
what was an example of how Chinese inventions stimulated innovations in distant lands?
the Chinese formula for gunpowder triggered the development of cannons in Europe
what shows the effect of the Indian Ocean trade on China?
the transformation of southern China from a subsistence economy to an export-oriented economy
what is an example of how Indian Buddhism was modified after its introduction into China?
the Buddhist notion of "morality" was translated with the Confucian term for "filial submission and obedience"
what is true of pre-Islamic Arabia?
Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians lived among the established Arab populations
Islam had roots in which set of religious or philosophical traditions?
Judaism, Christianity, and Zoroastrianism
what aspects of Arab tribal life was reinforced in the Quran?
what initiated the division within Islam between the Sunnis and Shias?
disagreement over who should assume leadership in the Islamic world
what expresses a view of women found in the Quran?
women were spiritually equal to men
in contrast to the spread of Buddhism and Christianity, the early spread of Islam
gave rise to a large empire
what was a feature of Islam that attracted converts in India?
the muslim notion of equality of all believers
what describes the effect of Islam on West Africa?
Islam had the greatest influence on rulers and urban elites
what resulted from Muslim rule in Spain?
the secular aspects of Islamic learning influenced the shaping of new European civilization
what was a goal of the education offered at the madrassas?
to preserve an established body of Islamic learning
what was a force that helped bind the Islamic world together?
the system of Islamic education created by the ulama
what was a result of the cross-regional ties created in the expanding Islamic world?
the exchange of agricultural products and practices from one region to another
what contributed to the decline of Christianity in Asia and Africa by 1500?
the spread of Islam
what describes the situation of Christian communities in the Middle East and North Africa from 650 to 1300?
shrinking communities of second-class subjects
What event in the thirteenth century influenced the Egyptian state's change in attitude toward its Christian subjects from tolerance to persecution?
Disagreement over what contributed to the split between the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church?
veneration of icons
In the eleventh century, the religious culture of the Byzantine Empire had a significant impact on
slavic-speaking peoples in the balkans and russia
what describes the process of conversion to Eastern Orthodox Christianity in Kievan Rus?
it was a freely made decision on the part of Prince Vladmir of Kiev who chose Eastern Orthodox Christianity to unify his people
what was evidence of the expansion and growth of European civilization during the High Middle Ages?
there was a considerable increase in long-distance trade
How did economic growth and urbanization during the High Middle Ages affect women in Western Europe?
women practiced trades and sometimes trained female apprentices
what describes the relationship between politics and religion in Western Europe from 500 to 1300?
rulers provided protection for the Church in return for religious legitimacy
what is an example of a European innovation made possible by borrowing technologies from other civilizations?
the use of gunpowder in cannons
during the period from 1000 to 1300, the rulers in which region held the least power?
in which civilization was the rationalism and secularism of Greek thought used to explain religious doctrines?
what describes the role pastoral societies played in world history before the Mongol Empire?
they created a series of nomadic empires and controlled major trade routes
why did pastoral societies emerge only in the Afro-Eurasian world and not in the Americas?
there was a lack of large animals that could be domesticated in the Americas
a characteristic feature of pastoral societies was their
what facilitated the creation of the Mongol Empire?
the territories the Mongols invaded were experiencing internal divisions
what contributed to temujin's rise to power and recognition as Chinggis Khan of the Great Mongol Nation?
the incorporation of warriors from defeated tribes into his own forces
what is an example of the Mongol rulers' policy toward people in the conquered territories?
Chinese and Muslim officials were allowed to hold advisory positions in government
In comparison to the Mongol conquests of Persia and China, Mongol rule in Russia
was not accompanied by Mongol occupation
What aspects of Chinese civilization did Mongol rulers in the Yuan dynasty adopt?
The use of traditional Confucian rituals
What happened to the Mongols in Persia in the fourteenth century?
The Mongols assimilated into Persian society
what was a long-term effect of the Black Death on European society?
the weakening of serfdom
what was a way in which the Mongols contributed to the globalization of the Eurasian world?
In providing a secure environment for traders, they facilitated long-distance international commerce
what is an example of the types of exchanges facilitated by Mongol rule over much of Eurasia?
the sharing of intelligence information between Persia and China
how did the last Ice Age affect Paleolithic people?
the lower sea levels associated with the Ice Age created land bridges, allowing human beings to travel to many regions of the earth
which of the following was the point of departure for migration into the Americas?
what describes early pastoral and agricultural village societies?
both possessed relatively egalitarian social structures with a few social distinctions
what describes a feature of pastoral societies?
what is usually considered a feature of "civilization"?
specialization of labor due to surplus food production
what first civilization is sometimes referred to as the "mother civilization" of mesoamerica?
kingship in the first civilizations often
depended on the belief that the position of king was divinely ordained
what was a reason for political instability in ancient mesopotamia?
rivalries between independent city-states which resulted in political changes
the territory of ancient mesopotamia is presently occupied by which country?
in first civilizations , slaves were drawn from which pool of people?
prisoners of war
what is an example of the way patriarchy was expressed in the First Civilizations?
laws that regulated female sexuality
what shows the relationship between religion and government in the first civilizations?
hammurabi claimed that his law code was inspire by marduk, the chief god of babylon