Which of the following is an element of the informal organization?
Which of the following statements is true concerning change?
Global competition is the leading force driving change at work.
Power distance is:
d. the degree to which a culture accepts unequal distribution of power.
In organizational justice, distributive justice:
a. concerns the fairness of outcomes individuals receive.
Which of the following is not a basic proposition of interactional psychology?
. A person is changed by situations, rather than changing situations.
Type theory states that introverts:
c. have excellent social skills but prefer the internal world of ideas, thoughts, and concepts.
Identify the five major barriers to social perception.
c. selective perception, stereotyping, first-impression error, projection and self-fulfilling prophecies
Cognitive dissonance is caused by a conflict between:
b. attitudes and behavior.
The correspondence between attitudes and behaviors doesn't depend on:
d. selective perception.
Which of the following individual qualities is not required in ethical decision making?
Dependence on a supervisor to always tell you what is right.
Which of the following is a level of cognitive moral development?
a. the premoral level
Herzberg's hygiene factors relate to:
. both job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction.
The manifest needs as identified by McClelland include
achievement, affiliation, and power.
In studying motivational theories, we are learning that:
c. achievement is more of a motivator for Americans than for other nationalities.
Classical conditioning is:
modifying behavior so that a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and elicits an unconditioned response.
________ results from inaccurate definition of the expected job performance.
5 A process of self-motivation and evaluations by a manager, peers, and possibly customers is known as?
b. 360 degree feedback
6 In attribution theory, a non-performing employee's internal attribution might include:
b. lack of commitment.
Silence as a response has:
b. value for the listener who needs to sort out thoughts.
3 Problem solving and decision making are often examples of
d. two-way communication.
Which of the following statements about barriers to communication is TRUE?
c. They include gender differences and language.
The most simplistic name for two or more people having common interests or objectives is a ________.
The "interpersonal glue" that helps work groups stay together is known as:
c. group cohesion.
Teams are very useful when:
b. the tasks are interrelated.
Responsibilities of a team leader, in contrast to a manager, include:
d. hands-on skills of direct involvement and full membership in the team.
Escalation of commitment:
is simply hanging on to a poor decision.
________ is a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment resulting from in-group pressures.
Which tactic is an American manager most likely to use when dealing with a tardy employee?
c. If you don't start reporting on time for work, I will have to cut your pay.
________ is the belief that one has the ability to do a job well.
The main difference between a leader and a manager is that:
leaders are advocates for change, and managers for the status quo.
On the Leadership Grid, a manager who has a medium concern for people and production is a(n):
b. organization man manager.
Which of the following ideas are associated with Fiedler's contingency theory?
Leaders are classified using an assessment tool called Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) scale.
According to the Situational Leadership model, a ________ style is characterized by high task behavior and high relationship behavior.
Which of the following is one of the competencies that make up emotional intelligence?
A dynamic follower is one who:
b. practices self-management.
________ conflict occurs when a person experiences conflict among the multiple roles in his or her life.
Which of the following statements best describes our understanding of the "avoidance approach" to conflict?
d. It is all right to use this approach when issues seem trivial.
6 In order to create a conflict-positive organization, there are many interrelated steps to follow. They include which of the following?
a. Empower employees to feel confident and skillful.
Scientific management emphasized:
b. work simplification.
Which of the following job core characteristics does NOT directly relate to meeting the needs of a critical psychological state?
c. rate of pay
The mechanics approach to job design emphasizes:
c. a lower chance of mental overload.
The idea of placing human consideration at the center of job design is called:
The characteristics which appropriately impact the design of an organization's design processes are known as:
b. contextual variables.
In comparing the organizational design needs of the small organization and the large organization, which of the following is a consideration for the small organization?
c. more centralization
In Perrow's study of the impact of technology on organization design, he considered all but which of the following elements?
d. The span of control in an organization as a whole.
6 There are several things that can assist a large organization to decentralize, including:
specialization of products/market/technology.
The most visible and accessible level of culture is:
Which statement is TRUE about espoused values?
. They are what members say they are.
Which one of the following is NOT one of the five major elements in a managing culture?
d. How well leaders know their employees.
Change and acquisition is:
a. when the newcomer begins to master the demands of the job.
It is the position of the authors, Nelson and Quick, that:
c. adapting, flexibility, and responsiveness are desirable hallmarks in change management.
Powerful external forces for change do not include:
d. bureaucratic guidelines.
5 Which of the following is NOT one of the steps in Lewin's change model?
Which of the following is true of Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory?
Maslow believed that humans were creative beings seeking self-actualization.
All of the following are factors that are necessary in the communication process EXCEPT
Job rotation is used primarily to
keep employees from getting bored
Which of the following is NOT thought to be a determinant of personality?
Which of the following is considered an unethical political tactic to gain power in an organization?
Playing territorial games
All of the following disciplines have contributed to the foundations of the field of organizational behavior EXCEPT
What do denial, stereotyping, and projection have in common?
They are all ways to deal with sensory information
The office grapevine is an example of
The following are true about making good business decisions EXCEPT
an estimated 20 percent of decisions made in organizations fail
What is considered a standard response for routine problems?
A manager trying to motivate an employee should
give ample feedback
A manager trying to motivate an employee should
By observing leaders and socialization
Which of the following is the least effective method of influencing others?
cross functional teams are
used most often for the purpose of product development
decision criteria are used to
Who developed the situational leadership model?
Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard
What is the trend in work space design?
Creating public spaces for employees to use for various purposes
The question "To whom do you go to for information about what's going on?" is commonly asked
during a social network analysis
Employees resist change most often because of the
fear of an adverse outcome
What is a common result of information overload?
increased work stress
Which of the following is true of heuristics?
Heuristics lead to biases in judgment.
According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), Bill is a thinking-type. When reviewing a vendor proposal with his boss, he will most likely
express his opinion
Which of the following is true about gender differences in leadership?
It is difficult to judge the truth about stereotypes of gender differences.
According to Kolb's Learning Style Type, which of the following describes the accommodative learning style?
Concrete experience, active experimentation, adaptive
Power granted to a person by an organization is an example of
What is a dependent variable?
The factor that an experiment or hypothesis tries to explain or predict that is affected by some other factor
Which of the following is NOT true about stress?
Women respond more intensely to stress than men and have a higher risk of heart attack and stroke.
Which of the following statements accurately describes situational leadership?
There is no one best way to influence group members.
A mechanistic organization
emphasizes specialization and control
Which of the following is true about job enrichment?
It increases employee responsibility.
Which is a major contributing factor to the transformational leader?
The most important challenge facing the field of organizational behavior is
managing workforce diversity
Which of the following has become a significant source of workplace conflict?
rudeness and incivility
Empowerment is a strategy focused on improving all of the following EXCEPT
What is an organigraph?
A map that gives an overview of a company's functions and the way people organize themselves at work
Which of the following statements is true about Herzberg's two-factor theory?
Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction.
Accounting firms, consulting firms, and hospitals are examples of
Which of the following is a difference between men's and women's communication styles?
Women prefer to communicate to build rapport, and men use communication to display knowledge and skill.
Being "in the zone" is also known as
the experience of flow
Which of the following is true about Total Quality Management (TQM)?
Relies on bottom-up, participative decision making in planning and execution
A leader with Machiavellian tendencies would likely
manipulate others for his or her personal gain
Which of the following statements accurately describes Vroom's expectancy theory?
It is one of the most widely accepted theories of motivation.
Advances in information technology have
increased access to information and made delayering possible
What type of power will help a leader establish a power base?
Power as an expert
What is the relationship between stress and job performance?
Moderate stress correlates with high performance.
Outsourcing means that a company
hires other companies to do some of its work
What is an affinity group?
An employee-involvement group made up of professional-level workers
The only way a person can influence someone else is to
Which is true about flat organization structures?
Customer problems can be solved quickly.
A person with a high achievement need
prefers tasks of intermediate difficulty
What differentiates a team from a group?
Shared versus individual accountability
has operant conditioning at its foundation
Determining the tasks to be done, who should do them, and who reports to whom is an example of which management function?
Which of the following statements is true about group dynamics?
Groups go through predictable stages to become productive.
According to the triarchic theory of intelligence,
wisdom, street smarts, and common sense are important factors of intelligence
As a rule of thumb, in the absence of information, what do many employees do?
Create and spread rumors
Which of the following describes people with a directive style of decision making?
Has a low tolerance for ambiguity and seeks rationality
The following are all conditions that favor social learning EXCEPT
need for power
Which of the following is true about virtual teams?
They benefit companies that are spread out in a wide geographic area.
The contingency approach to organization design affirms that
organizations are more effective when they are structured to fit the situational demand
Which of the following is true about employee recognition?
Employees welcome praise as much as a paycheck.
A strategy, or method, for increasing organizational effectiveness by bringing about planned change is called
Nonverbal communication has the main purpose of
expressing the communicator's emotions behind the message
If an employee misperceives an event that occurs in the workplace, it is likely that he or she has
strong attitudes about that event
Which organization structure is best suited to leveraging specialization?
The nominal group technique is
a group decision-making approach that generates creative alternatives independently
According to the Holmes and Rahe "Social Adjustment Rating Scale," which of the following is considered the most stressful event?
Death of a spouse
Which of the following is NOT a technique to enhance creativity?
Forming homogeneous work groups
Which of the following is a disadvantage of a bureaucratic organizational structure?
Bureaucratic controls can suppress initiative and decision making at lower levels.
In order to build teamwork, a manager should avoid which of the following?
Supervising the group closely
Which of the following is an accurate description of Emotional Intelligence (EI)?
A person's EI predicts performance better than IQ.
Which of the following statements is true about organizational behavior?
Organizational behavior is a study of individuals, groups, and structure.
Openly discussing the worst-case possibilities of a situation is a way a company can
reduce the negative consequences of rumors
What does the P stand for in the equation B = ƒ(P x E)?
All of the following accurately describe Alderfer's ERG theory EXCEPT
Alderfer reworked Herzberg's theory to align with empirical research
According to the Leadership Grid®, which is the best leadership style?
According to equity theory model,
employee satisfaction is dependent on how fairly the employee believes he or she is treated in comparison to others
Who created the three-step model for change that includes unfreezing, movement, and refreezing?
Leadership is the domain of which group of employees?
Which of the following is true about conflict?
Conflict can be both positive and negative.
Which of the following accurately describes organizational change?
Individuals' ability to learn to deal with change is a major part of managing change.
Cognitive style is determined by
how people gather and evaluate information
likely to occur when the group values getting along more than getting things done
Experts predict that the predominant style of organization in the future will be
The 4I framework of a learning organization consists of intuiting, interpreting, integrating, and
Which of the following is the foundation of all organization cultures?
History of the company and its founders
What triggers the fight or flight response?
Process consultants wil
guide and coach on workflow, informal relationships, and communication
Which type of firm is likely to use a territorial departmentalization structure?
Large service firm
The Delphi technique is best suited for
decision making for groups that are difficult to bring physically together
What is cognitive dissonance?
When attitudes or beliefs held by a person are contradictory
A team member in the role of process observer contributes by
helping the group look at how it's functioning
According to attribution theory,
information on causation is gathered on three dimensions of behavior
Which of the following is a frequently used research method for organizational behavior?
Which of the following accurately describes social loafing?
It is also known as freeloading.
According to Myers-Briggs typology, a sensation-type individual is best described as someone who
prefers routine and order when gathering information
Problem recognition, immersion, incubation, insight, and verification describe what organizational process?
Creative decision making
Individual styles are likely to come into conflict during which stage of group development?
All of the following are ways to become a learning organization EXCEPT
focus development efforts on senior management
Which of the following is the most effective technique for preventing and reducing stress?
Max Webber -
classical organization theory was concerned with structuring organizations effectively
proposed the development of what he called the bureaucratic form of organization structure
include individual differences -attitudes personalities perception attribution, employee motivation learning reinforcement and work stress
is learning by imitation. normally on a uncounscious level where the learner picks up the skills by another employee who masters the skill
learning by means of rewards and punishments such as incentives bonuses or reprimands and punishment
is based on conscious learning where a consciously learning method has been chosen
where the employee is doing - then reflecting then thinking then deciding and this process continues with re-doing
is the process of determining the organizations desired future position and deciding how best to get there
the process of designing jobs grupong jobs into manageable units and establishing patterns of authority amoung jobs and groups
is the process of motivating members of the organization to work together toward the organizations goals
is the process of monitoring and correcting the actions of the organization and its people to keep them headed toward their goals
defined basic managerial roles such as interpersonal roles - informational roles critical managerial skills
figurehead role - leader role - liasion role - are involved primarily with interactions with other people
involve some aspect of information processng - monitor - disseminator - spokesperson decision making entrepreneur - disturbance handler resource allocator negotiater role
The four management functions include all of the following EXCEPT _____.
_____ studies behavior as it relates to concerns such as absenteeism, turnover, productivity, and performance.
According to the text, the best approach for obtaining knowledge about human behavior is_____.
a systematic approach
What behavioral science discipline has made the MOST significant contributions to understanding individual behavior?
_____ has helped us understand differences in fundamental values, attitudes, and behavior between people in different countries.
____ means that organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, race, and ethnicity.
The _____ assumption assumes that people who are different will want to assimilate.
Which of the following groups will NOT increase as a percentage of the workforce?
A(n) _____is a situation in which an employee must define right and wrong conduct.
Individual level independent variables include _____.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of physical ability?
According to your text, which is the most likely explanation for the higher absentee rate for women?
Traditionally, women have had the responsibility of caring for home and family.
_____ is the learning concept of reinforcing closer and closer approximations to the desired new behavior.
An example of _____ is when an employee receives a one-week suspension from work and is fined $200 for stealing company property.
Eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining an unwanted behavior is called _____.
All of the following are TRUE about both positive and negative reinforcement EXCEPT:
Both positive and negative reinforcement tend to weaken behavior and decrease it subsequent frequency.
A slot machine is an example of _____ reinforcement.
For a salesperson who is paid commission, reinforcement occurs on a _____ schedule.
The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting is referred to as _____.
The belief that "discrimination is wrong" is a value statement. Such an opinion is the _____ component of an attitude.
Leon Festinger would propose that the desire to reduce dissonance would be determined by all of the following EXCEPT _____.
the extent to which attitudes are widely held by society.
If attitudes and behavior are inconsistent, individuals will most likely _____
change either their attitudes or behavior
_____ describes a positive feeling about your job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.
Job _____ measures the degree to which a person identifies psychologically with his or her job and considers his or her perceived performance level important to self-worth.
_____ commitment refers to an employee's obligation to remain with an organization for moral or ethical reasons.
_____ refers to an individual's involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the work she does.
Steve is unhappy with his job. He takes every possible vacation and sick day and sometimes shows up for work late. He is expressing his dissatisfaction with a _____ response.
People with positive _____ believe in their inner worth and basic competence.
Quietly continuing to do your work, even though you're dissatisfied, is an example of _____ response to dissatisfaction.
According to the Myers-Briggs type Indicator, people who are classified as _____ are conceptualizers.
In the book Profiles of Genius, thirteen key executives were interviewed and tested and all were found to be _____ types. This result is particularly interesting because this type represents only about five percent of the population.
Which dimension of the Big Five model refers to an individual's propensity to defer to others?
Individuals with a positive _____ like themselves, see themselves as effective, capable, and in control of their environment.
Individuals who are high in the _____ dimension of personality manipulate more, win more, are persuaded less, and persuade others more.
According to Rokeach, _____ values refer to desirable end-states of existence.
Which of the following is NOT one of Hofstede's five dimensions of national culture?
_____ is the degree to which people in a country prefer structured over unstructured situations.
John Holland argues that job satisfaction is highest and turnover lowest where _____.
personality and occupation are in agreement
personality and occupation are in agreement
Which one of the following is NOT a factor that influences perception?
Because it is impossible for us to assimilate everything we see, we engage in _____.
The internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II is an example of _____.
Which is NOT one of the steps in the rational decision making model?
Selecting the decision that satisfices
Decision makers operate within the confines of _____ i.e., they construct simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity.
_____ is an increased commitment to a previous decision in spite of negative information.
Escalation of commitment
In spite of the fact that short-term stock price changes are essentially random, a large proportion of investors believe that they can predict the direction that prices will move. This is an example of _____.
Which of the following is NOT an organizational constraint on decision-making?
Decisions made so as to provide the greatest good for the greatest number are based on _____.
Which of the following is NOT a key element in motivation?
_____ is the drive to become what one is capable of becoming in Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
Which of the following were considered higher-order needs by Maslow?
social, esteem, and self-actualization needs
A Theory X manager would assume employees would _____.
need to be controlled
Two-factor theory suggests that extrinsic factors such as _____ cause dissatisfaction.
Individuals with a high need to achieve prefer all of the following EXCEPT _____
a high degree of risk
According to the goal-setting theory of motivation, goals should be _____.
difficult but attainable
Manager's can increase an employee's _____ through enactive mastery, vicarious modeling, verbal persuasion, and arousal.
_____ exists when an individual perceives that the ratio of their inputs to outcomes is dissimilar to the ration of relevant others.
The degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual's personal goals or needs and the attractiveness of those potential rewards for the individual is the ____ relationship.
The _____ says that internal rewards are obtained by individuals when they learn that they personally have performed well on a task that they care about.
job characteristics model
____ (or cross-training) is the periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another.
_____ may be implemented by combining tasks, forming natural work units, establishing client relationships, expanding jobs vertically, and opening feedback channels.
Susan works from 6 a.m. to 3 p.m. each day, while other employees in her office work from 10 a.m. to 7 p.m. It appears that Susan's employer offers a _____ option.
Writers, attorneys, analysts, and employees who spend the majority of their time on computers or on the telephone are natural candidates for _____.
_____ is a participative process that uses the entire capacity of employees and is designed to encourage increased commitment to the organization's success.
A _____ is a group of employees and supervisors who meet regularly to discuss their quality problems and recommend solutions.
Piece-rate plans, merit based pay, bonuses, profit sharing, gainsharing, and employee stock ownership plans are all forms of _____ programs.
_____ is an incentive plan where improvements in group productivity determine the total amount of money that is allocated.
The three most popular types of _____ are modular plans, core-plus options, and flexible spending accounts.
_____ is a generic term that covers a broad range of feelings that people experience.
Six universal _____ are anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, and surprise.
_____ is a field of study that examines the extent to which emotions, whether positive or negative, serve a purpose.
_____ is a mood dimension consisting of nervousness, stress, and anxiety at the high end, and relaxation, tranquility, and poise on the low end.
_____ occurs when people associate two events, when there is no real connection.
_____ refers to an employee's expression of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work.
Jane is concerned that her company is selling products of very poor quality. However, when meeting with customers, Jane feels obligated to be positive and express confidence about the quality of the product. Jane is likely experiencing _____.
People who exhibit _____ know their own emotions and are good at reading others' emotions may be more effective in their jobs
_____, one of the dimensions of emotional intelligence, is awareness of one's feelings.
People in good moods use _____, or rules of thumb, to make decisions.
The _____ stage in group development which is characterized by uncertainty.
The _____ model is effective at describing decision-making within temporary groups, particularly those with deadlines.
____ groups are defined by the organization's structure.
_____ refers to the attitudes and behaviors that are consistent with a role
_____ describe how others believe you should act in a given situation.
Which is NOT a common class of norms appearing in most work groups?
What is the relationship between size and group performance?
Increases in group size are inversely related to individual performance.
Which is NOT a weakness of group decision-making?
Groups offer increased diversity of views.
Which of the following best describes brainstorming?
A process for generating ideas.
Which of the following does NOT explain the current popularity of teams?
Teams enable organizations to better utilize employee talents.
_____ is an attribute of work teams which results in a level of performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs.
_____ teams go farther than problem-solving teams in getting employees involved in work-related decisions and processes.
Which is NOT one of the three primary factors that differentiate virtual teams from face-to-face teams?
Increased social rapport
Which of the following is NOT one of the key factors in creating effective teams?
Which of the following statements is true concerning the climate of trust?
Interpersonal trust among team members reduces the need to monitor each others behavior.
Teams are most effective when staffed with people who are _____.
_____ illustrates a process loss as a result of using teams.
The _____ initiates a message by encoding a thought.
The chief means of conveying messages is _____ communication.
The _____ communication network is best illustrated by an unstructured committee.
Grapevine studies have shown that ____ percent of employees hear about matters first through rumors on the grapevine.
Electronic communication includes all of the following EXCEPT:
_____ refers to the amount of information that can be transmitted during a communication episode.
Jake tells his boss only what he believes the boss wants to hear. He is engaging in _____.
Which of the following is NOT a barrier to effective communication?
Tannen's research indicates that men use talk to ___, while women use it to _____.
emphasize status; create connection
In _____ cultures, the words themselves are the primary conveyors of meaning.
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
All managers are not leaders.
_____ theory states that people are born with certain characteristics that predispose them to being leaders.
When organized around the Big Five, _____ is the most important trait of effective leaders.
_____ is the extent to which a person is likely to have job relationships that are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees' ideas, and regard for their feelings.
Fiedler's contingency model assumes that an individual's leadership style is _____.
Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership theory differs from other leadership theories most clearly because it _____.
focuses on the followers
According to LMX theory, which of the following is NOT true of those individual's who fall into the out-group?
They are trusted.
A _____ leadership style, identified by House in path-goal theory, leads to greater satisfaction when tasks are ambiguous or stressful than when they are highly structured and well laid out.
The leader-participation model was developed by _____.
Vroom and Yetton
Leaders demonstrate _____ when they use language to influence followers' perceptions of the world, the meaning of events, beliefs about causes and consequences, and visions of the future.
Which of the following is NOT true of charismatic leaders?
They are focused on their personal needs.
A charismatic leader's _____ is key to follower acceptance.
A _____ leader has five essential qualities: (1) individual capability; (2) team skills; (3) managerial competence; (4) the ability to stimulate others to high performance; and (5) a blend of personal humility and professional will.
_._____ leaders know who they are, know that they believe in and value, and act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly.
Which of the following is NOT a dimension of trust?
A ______ is a senior employee who sponsors and supports a less-experienced employee.
Which of the following is true concerning online leadership?
Effective on-line leaders need to develop the skill of deciphering the emotional components of messages.
Which of the following is NOT a substitute for leadership?
Professional orientation of employees
____ research emphasizes style; whereas research on ____ focuses on tactics for gaining compliance.
A has ____ power over B if A can dismiss, suspend, or demote B, assuming that B values his or her job.
Avoidance of ______ is why most organizations develop multiple suppliers rather than give their business to only one.
_____ is the only power tactic that is effective across organizational levels.
_____ is the only power tactic that is effective across organizational levels.
Most studies confirm that the concept of _____ is central to understanding sexual harassment.
______ occurs when people within organizations use whatever influence they can to taint the facts to support their goals and interests.
Which of the following is NOT an individual factor related to political behavior?
Level of trust
_____ is the process by which individuals attempt to control the impressions others form of them.
_____ are more likely to engage in impression management, molding their image to fit the situation.
Each of the following is a question your text suggests to analyze ethical questions except:
Is the action legal?
Conflict must be _____ by the parties to it.
The traditional view of conflict argues that conflict _____.
indicates a malfunctioning within the group
The _____ view of conflict argues that some conflict is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively.
_______ conflicts are almost always dysfunctional.
During the _____ stage of the conflict process, conditions are present that create opportunities for conflict to arise.
potential opposition or incompatibility
Assertiveness is _____.
the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy his/her own concerns
Labor-management negotiations over wages exemplifies _____ bargaining.
_____ bargaining builds long-term relationships and facilitates working together in the future.
During which phase of the negotiation process do the parties exchange their initial proposals or demands?
Definition of ground rules
Which of the following is correc
In negotiations, Brazilians are likely to use physical contact.
Work specialization is also referred to as ___
division of labor
At an Alcoa aluminum tubing plant in upstate New York, production is organized into five departments: casting; press; tubing; finishing and inspecting, packing, and shipping. This is an example of _____ departmentalization.
The ____ is characterized by highly routine operating tasks achieved through specialization.
The ____ violates the unity-of-command concept.
The ____ is also called the network or modular organization.
The boundaryless organization relies heavily on _____.
The _____ is a structure characterized by extensive departmentalization, high formalization, a limited information network, and centralization.
Which of the following is NOT a determinant of an organization's structure?
Changes in corporate strategy precede and lead to _____.
changes in an organization's structure
Which of the following generalizations about organizational structures and employee performance and satisfaction is MOST true?
There is no evidence that supports a relationship between span of control and employee performance.
Institutionalization is the process through which _____.
an organization takes on a life of its own
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of organizational culture?
A strong culture builds all of the following EXCEPT ____.
Culture is most likely to be a liability when _____.
the environment is dynamic
Which of the following is NOT a way that culture is created?
Founders poll early employees to determine the appropriate cultural values.
All of the following serve to sustain a culture EXCEPT _____.
_____ is the process that adapts employees to the organization's culture.
Which of the following is NOT a common form by which culture is transmitted to employees?
Which of the following is NOT identified that managers can create a more ethical culture?
Set aggressive performance goals.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a spiritual organization?
Censorship of employee expression
The objective of effective _____ is to match individual characteristics such as ability and experience, with the requirements of the job.
_____ tests assess the applicant's ability in an authentic situation.
Which of the following was NOT specifically suggested by your author as a general category of employee skills?
_____ skills training includes learning how to be a better listener and how to be a more effective team player.
____ training includes job rotation, apprenticeships, understudy assignments, and formal mentoring programs.
Performance evaluation serves a number of purposes, including determining who gets merit increases and other rewards. This is an example of which of the following functions of performance evaluation?
Basis for reward allocations
_____ evaluation provides performance feedback from the full circle of daily contacts that an employee might have.
John's performance evaluation rates him on a scale of 1 to 5 for characteristics such as job knowledge and cooperation. John's company is using a _____ performance evaluation system.
graphic rating scale
Even the most prestigious of schools has experienced grade inflation. In 1970, the average GPA of students at Princeton was _____, while it was _____ in 2000.
Flextime, job sharing, and part-time work are examples of _____ for managing work-life conflicts.
_____ are responsible for initiating and managing change within an organization.
Stan is trying to implement a new organizational structure at his company. A group of key employees is resisting the change. In an attempt to "buy off" the leaders, Stan is giving them a key role in the change decision. He doesn't really value their opinion, but wants their endorsement. Stan is using the change strategy of _____.
Refreezing involves _____
making a new change permanent
John Kotter's _____ for implementing change builds on Lewin's three-step model.
What of the following best describe action research?
a change process based on the systematic collection of data and then selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicate
_____ is a paradigm that values human and organizational growth, collaborative processes, and a spirit of inquiry.
_____ uses high-interaction group activities to increase trust and openness among team members.
____ seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization and build on these to improve performance.
When errors are detected in _____, the correction process relies on past routines and present policies.
According to Kolb's Learning Style Type, which of the following describes the convergent learning style?
Abstract conceptualization, active experimentation, problem-solving
According to the garbage can model of decision making, the four factors that need to connect to make a decision are problems, participants, solutions, and
Which of the following is true about stress?
Employees with external locus of control perceive situations to be more stressful than employees with internal locus of control.
classical organization theory
an early approach to management that focused on how organizations can be structured most effectively to meet thier goals
skills used to think in the abstract
is the process of monitoring and correcting the actions of the organziation and its members to keep them directed toward their goals
decision making roles
key roles include the entrepreneur, the disturbance handler the resource allocator and the negotiator
skills used to understand cause and effect relationships and to recognize the optimal solutions to problems
an individuals personal beliefs about what is right and wrong or good and bad
conducted between 1927 and 1932 led to some of the first discoveries of the importance of huma behavior in organizations
human relations movement
the beginning of organizational behavior was based on the assumption that employee satisfaction is a key determinant of performance
key roles include the monitor the disseminator and the spokesperson
key roles include the figurehead the leader and the liasion
skills used to communicate with understand and motivate individuals and groups
is the process of getting the organizations members to work together toward achieving the organizations goals
the study of human behavior in organizational settings of the interface between human behavior and the organization, and the organization itself
is the process of designing jobs grouping jobs into units and establishing patterns of authority between job and units
is the process of determining an organizations desired future position and the best means of getting there
the process of optimizing the size of an organizations workforce through downsizing expanding and or outsourcing
one of the first approaches to management focused on the efficiency of individual workers and assumed that employees are motiviated by money
theory that suggests that in most organizations situations and outcomes are contingent on or influcence by other variables
an organizations obligation to protect and contribute to the social environment in which it functions
the skills necessary to accomplish specific tasks within the organization
described by Douglas McGregor is an approach to management that takes a negative and pessimistic view of workers
described by Douglas McGregor is an approach to management that takes a positive and optimistic perspective on workers
the process through which memb ers of a minority group are forced to learn the ways of the dominant group
the extent to which people emphasize the good of the group or society
the extent to which people place primary value on themselves
long term orientation
people who focus on the future
masculinity assertiveness or materialism
the extent to which the dominatnt values in a society emphasize aggressiveness and the acquisition of money and material goods over concern for people relationships among people and the overall quality of life
an organization that has diverse membership and takes steps to fully involve all people who differ from the dominant group
the extent to which less powerful persons accept the unequal distribution of power
primary dimensions of diversity
factors that are either inborn or exert extraordinary influcene on early socialization age ethnicity gender physical abilities race and sexual orientation
short term orientation
people with focus on the past or present
judgements about others that reinforce beliefs about superiority and inferiority
the extent to which people prefer to be in unambiguous sitatuions
the act of putting an end to the assumption that everyone who is not a member of the dominant group must assimilate
a person's ability to get along with others
a persons complexes of beliefs and feelings about specific ideas situations or other people
the belief that power and status differences are appropriate within hierarchical social systems such as organizations
big five personality traits
a set of fundamental traits that are especially relevant to organizations
a sense of exhaustion that develops when someone experiences too much stress for an extended period of time
the anxiety a person experiences when he or she siimultanously possesses two sets of knowledge or perceptions that are contradictory or incongruent
the number of goals on which a person focuses
what the individual's contributes to an organization including effort skills ability time and loyalty
the ability to generate new ideas or to conceive of new perspectives on existing ideas
work related behaviors that detract from organizational performance
emotional intelligence - EQ
the extent to which people are self aware can manage thier emotions can motivate themselves express empathy for others and possess social skills
the quality of being comfortable with relationships the opposite extreme introversion is characterized by more social discomfort
general adaption syndrome GAS
a cycle through which stress occurs alarm resistance and exhaustion
the stage of less intense conscious concentration during which a creative person lets the knowledge and ideas acquired during preparation mature and develop
personal attributes that vary from one person to another
the tangible and intangible rewards provided by organizations to individuals
the stage in the creative process when all the scattered thoughts and ideas that were maturing during incubation come together to produce a breakthrough
the extent to which aperson is gratified or fulfilled by his or her work
locus of control
the extent to which people believe their circumstances are a function of their own actions versus external factors beyond their control
a behavior which causes people to behave to gain power and to control the behavior of others
people who are generally downbeat and pessimistic see things in a negative way, and seem to be in a bad mood
characterized by moodiness and insecurity
the capacity to entertain new ideas and to change as a result of new information
the extent to which a person's behavior makes a positive overall contribution to the organization
a persona identification with and attachment to an organization
the set of processes by which an individual becomes aware of and interprets information about the environment
the total set of work related behaviors that the organization expects the individual to display
the relatively stable set of psychological attributes that distinguish one persona from another
person job fit
the extent to which the individuals contributions match the inducements offered by the organization
people who are upbeat and optimistic have an overall sence of well being and see things in a positvie light
usually the first tage in the creative process includes education and formal training
a person's set of expectations regarding what he or she will contribute to the organization and wht the organization will provide in return
the degree to which a person is willing to take chances and make risky decisions
the process of screening out information that we are uncomfortable with or that contradicts oru beliefs
the extent to which people believe they can accomplish their goals even if they failed to do so in the past
the extent to which a person believes he or she is a worthwhile and deserving individual
the process of categorizing or labeling people on the basis of a single attribute
an individuals response to a strong stimulus
a strong stimulus that results in stress
occurs when people quit their jobs
type a individuals
people who are extremely competitive highly committed to work and have a strong sense of time urgency
type b individuals
people who are less competitive less committed to work and have a weaker sense of urgency
the final stage of the creative process in which the validity or turthfulness of the insight is determined
a pattern of action by the members of an organization that directly or indirectly influences organizational effectiveness
avoidance -negative reinforcement
the opportunity to avoid or escape from an unpleasant circumstance after exhibiting behavior
a simple form of learning that links a conditioned response with an unconditioned stimulus
behavior that is rewarded every time it occurs
dual structure theory
identifies motivation factors which affect satisfaction and hygiene factors which determine dissatisfaction
effort to performance expectancy
a persons perception of the probability that effort will lead to performance
the belief that one is being treated fairly in relation to others inequity is the belief that one is being treated unfairly in relation to others
theory that describes existence relatedness and growth needs
theory that suggests people are motivated by how much they want something and the liklihood they perceive of getting it
decreases the frequency of behavior by eliminating a reward or desirable consequence that follows that behavior
fixed interval reinforcement
provides reinforcement on a fixed time schedule
fixed ratio reinforcement
provides reinforcement after a fixed number of behaviors
hierarchy of needs theory
Abraham Maslows hierarchy that assumes human needs are arranged in a hierarchy of importance
human relations approach
an approach to motivation that suggests that favorable employee attitudes result in motivation to work hard
human resource approach
an approach to motivation that assumes employees want and are able to make genuine contributions to the organization
factors that are extrinsic to the work itself and include factors such as pay and job security
a relatively permanent change in behavior or behavioral potential resulting from direct or indirect experience
factors that are intrinsic to the work itself and include achievement and recognition
need for achievement
the desire to accomplish a task or goal more effectively than in the past
need for affiliation
the need for human companionship
need for power
the desire to control the resources in ones' environment
need based theories of motivation
theories that assume that need deficiencies cause behavior
organizational behavior modificaiton OB mod
the application of reinforcement theory to people in organizational settings
anything that results from performing a particular behavior
performance to outcome expectancy
an individuals perception of the probability that performance will lead to certain outcomes
a reward or other desireable consequence that a persona receives after exhibiting behavior
process based perspectives on motivaiton
perspectives that focus on how people behave in thier efforts to satisfy thier needs
an unpleasant or aversive consequence that results from behavior
consequence of behavior
theory based on the idea that behavior is a function of its consequences
schedules of reinforcement
schedules that indicate when or how often managers should reinforce certain behaviors
one of the first approaches to management focused on the efficiency of individual workers and assumed that employees ar emotivated by money
occurs when people observe the behaviors of others recognize their consequences and alter their own behavior as a result
the degree of attractiveness or unattractiveness a particular outcome has for a person
variable interval reinforcement
varies the amount of time between reinforcements
variable ratio reinforcement
varies the number of behaviors between reinforcements
the process of enabling workers to set their own work goals make decisions and solve problems within their sphere of responsibility and authority
job characteristics approach
identifies five motivational properties of tasks and three psychological states of people
how organizations define and structure jobs
involves giving workers more tasks to perform
entails giving workers more tasks to perform and more control over how to perform them
as advocated by scientific management it can help improve efficiency but it can also promote monotony and boredom
the process of giving employees a voice in making decisions about thier own work
the extent t which a person accepts a goal as his or her own
the extent to which a person is personally interested in reaching a goal
the clarity and precision of a goal
indirect compensation - benefits
refers to nonwage or salary compensation such as paid time off and insurance coverage
MBO - management by objectives
a collaborative goal setting process through which organizational goals cascade down throughout the organization
performance management system PMS
comprises the processes and activities involved in performance appraisals
performance measurement -
the process by which someone evaluates an employees work behaviors by measurement and comparison with previously established standards
special privileges awarded to selected members of an organization usually top managers
the extent to which people believe they can accomplish their goals even if they failed to do so in the past
the objective meaning or worth a reward has to an employee
the subjective and personal meaning or worth a reward has to an employee
all channel network
in this type of network all members communicate with all other members
occurs when the parties goals are compatible and the interaction between groups is relatively unimportant to the goals attainment
in this type of network each member communicates with the person above and below except for the individuals on each end who each communicate with only one person
collections of employees from the same level in the organization who meet on a regular basis to share information capture emerging opportunities and solve problems
a disturbance in communication that is primarily a function of a medium
avoidance - negative reinforcement
the opportunity to avoid or escape from an unpleasant circumstance after exhibiting behavior
in this type of network -each member communicates with the people on both sides but with no one else
occurs when the interaction between groups is very important to goal attainment and the goals are compatible
the degree of correspondence between the message intended by the source and themessage understood by the receiver
a relatevely permanent formal group with functional reporting relationships usually included in the organization chart
an individual who inks the organization to the external environment and may also be an opinion leader in the group
communication and decision making
the stage of group development where members discuss their feelings more openly and agree on group goals and individual roles in the group
the process by which the reciever of themessage interprets its meaning
occurs when the goals are incompatible and the interactions between groups are important to meeting goals
the process by which the message is translated from an idea or thought into transmittable symbols
an individual who has a strategic position in the network that allows him or her to control information moving in either direction through a channel
an individual who tends to work alone and to interact and communicate little with othes
two people who tend to work alone and to interact and communicate little with others
the creation and constructive use of conflict by a manager
the specialized or technical language of a trade profession or social group
control and organization
the stage of group development when the group is mature members work together and are flexible adaptive and self correcting
a group that is relatively permanent and informal and draws its benefits from the social relationships among its members
the channel or path through which the message is transmitted
the extent to which the goals of more than one person or group can be achieved at the same time
the study of language forms
the individual group or organization interested in communicating something to another party
the degree of similarity or difference among group members on factors important to the groups work
group performance factors
factors that affect the success of the group in fulfilling its goals including composition size norms and cohesiveness
the final stage of the creative process in which the truthfulness of the insight is determined
a group that is relatively temporary and informal and is organized around a common activity or interest of its members
in this type of network information flows between the person at the end of each sopke and the person in the middle
a position for a person or group that serves to coordinate the activities of two or more organizational groups
mutual acceptance group
the stage of group development that is characterized by members sharing information about themselves and getting to know each other
a standard against which the appropriateness of a behavior is judged
consist of manages from various areas they coordinate work teams
problem solving teams
temporary teams established to attack specific problems in the workpplace
job centered leader behavior
behavior that involves paying close attention to the work of subordinates explaining work procedures and demonstrating a strong interest in performance
product development teams
combinations of work teams and problem solving teams that create new designs for products or services that will satisfy customers needs
ohio state leaderships studies
these studies defined leader consideration and initating structure behaviors as independent dimensions of leadership
small groups of employees from the same work area who regularly meet to discuss and recommend solutions to workplace problems
employee centered leader behavior
behavior that involves attempting to build effective work groups with high performance goals
include all the people working in an area are relatively permanent and do the daily work making decisions regarding how the work of the team is done
hersey and blanchard model
model that identifies different combinations of leadership presumed to work best with different levels of organizational maturity on the part of followers
least preferred coworker - LPC scale
scale that presumes to measure a leader's motivation
vroom's decision tree approach to leadership
this model attempts to prescribe how much participation subordinates should be allowed in making decisions
a direct and intentional effort by someone to enhance his or her own image in the eyes of others
behavior that involves being concerned with subordinates feelings and respecting subordinates ideas
Path goal theory of leadership
theory that suggests that effective leaders clarify the paths - behaviors- that will lead to desired rewards - goals
the ability to affect the perceptions attitudes or behaviors of others
LPC theory of leadership
theory that suggests that a leaders effectiveness depends on the situation
individual task and organizational characteristics that tend to outweigh the leaders ability to affect subordinates satisfaction and performance
an approach that attempted to identify stable and enduring character traits that differentiated effective leaders from non leaders
initiating structure behavior
behavior that involves clearly defining the leader subordinate roles so that subordinates know what is expected of them
activities carried out by people to acquire enhance and use power and other resources to obtain thier desired outcomes
resides in the person regardless of the position he or she fills
michigan leadership studies
these studies defined job centered and employee centered leadership as opposite ends of a single leadership continuum
occurs when a leader gradually and purposefully turns over power responsibility and control to a sel managing work group
the set of abilities that allows the leader to recognize the need for change to create a vision to guide that change and to execute that change effectively
continues the technical improvement and extends the applications of radical and systems innovations
acceptance theory of authority
the theory that the managers authority depends on the subordianates acceptance of the managers right to give directives and to expect compliance with them
approach to leadership that tries to identify behaviors that differentiate effective leaders from nonleaders uses rules of thumb suboptimizing and satisficing in making decisions
a person responsible for managing a change effort
the process of creating and doing new things that are introduced into the marketplace as products and services or processes
this structure is typically found in young organizations in highly technical fields within it decision making is spread throughout the organization power resides with the experts horizontal and vertical specialization exists and there is little formalization
the idea that decision makers cannot deal with information about all the aspects and alternatives pertaining to a problem and therefore choose to tackle some meaningful subset of it
the process of planned change and improvement of the organization through application of knowledge of the behavioral sciences
entrepreneurial activity that takes place within the context of a large corporation
the system of reporting relationships in the organization from the lowest to the highest managerial levels
occurs because numerous organizational systems are in place to ensure that employees and systems behave as expected to maintain stability
current situations in an organization and the linkages among work groups employees and work performance
power that has been ligitimzed with a particular social context
the anxiety a person experiences when he or she simultaneously possesses two sets of knowledge or perceptions that are contradictory or incongruent
quality of work life
the extent to which workers can satisfy important personal needs through their experiences in the organization
the set of values that helps the organizations employees understand which actions are considered acceptable and which unacceptable
a structural policy in which decision making authority is concentrated at the top of the organizational hierarchy
a very personal approach to decision making because it deals with the personal conflicts that people experience in particularly difficult decision situations
the process of making new behaviors relatively permanent and resistant to further change
the process through which emploees learn about the firm's culture and pass thier knowledge and understanding on to others
an approach to organization design in which the desired outcomes for the organization can be achieved in several ways
alternative actions to take if the primary course of action is unexpectedly distupted or rendered inappropriate
a systemwide organization development involving a major restructuring of the organization or instituting programs such as quality of work life
the extent to which the dynamics of an organizations decision making processes are judged to be fiar by those most affectied by them
the transfer to others of the authority to make decisions and use organizational resources
the process of choosing from among several alternatives
the process of systematically planning organizing and implementing change
a major breakthrough that changes or creates whole industries
the manner in which divided tasks are combined and allocated to work groups
a statement that tells a decision maker which alternative to choose based on the charcteristics of the decision situation
the process by which people become aware of the need for change
the process through which individuals become social beings
this structure is typical of old very large organizations the organization is divided according to the different markets served
entails making no changes in present activities and avoiding any further contact with associated issues because thre appears to be no hope of finding a better solution
the basic beliefs about an organizations environment that shape its strategy
the number of invironmental components that impinge on organizational decision making
a method of systematically gathering judgments of experts for use in developing forecasts
creates a new functionality by assembling parts in new ways
the degree tow hich environmental components that impinge on organizational decision making change
the tendency for a groups average post discussion attitudes to be more extreme than its average prediscussion attitudes
exists when managers have little information about environmental events and their impact on the organization
the degree to which rules and procedures shape the jobs and activities of employees
a frantic superficial pursuit of some satisficing strategy
the broad set of dimensions and factors within which the organization operaties including political legal sociocultural technological economic and international factors
nominal group technique
technique in which group members follow a generate discussion vote cycle until they reach an appropriate decision
renis likerts approach that is based on supportive relationships participation and overlapping work groups
weber's model that is characterized by a hierarchy of authority and a system of rules and procedures designed to create an optimally effective system for large organizations
a decision that recurs infrequently and for which there is no previously established decision rule
practical approach to decision making
this approach combines the steps of the rational approach with the conditions in the behavioral approach to create a more realistic process for making decisions in organizations
this structure is typical of large well established organizations work is highly specialized and formalized and decision making is usually concentrated at the top
this model guides the negotiater through the four steps of planning for agreement building relationships reaching agreements and maintaining relationships
set forth by henri fayol they include planning organizing command coordination and control
a form of decision making in which the issue is unique and alternatives must be developed and evaluated without the aid of a programmed decision rule
combines two different designs to gain the benefits of each typically combined are product or project departmentalization scheme and a functional structure
this structure is primarily hierarchical interactions and communications are typically vertical instructions come from the boss knowledge is concentrated at the top and loyalty and obedience are required to sustain membership
rational decision making approach
a systematic step by step process for making decisions
this structure is set up like a network interactions and communications are horizontal knowledge resides where ever it is most useuful to the organization and membership requires a commitment to the organizations tasks
comparisons of alternatives with internatlized moral standards
a group of people working together to attain common goals
knowingly accepting less than the best possible outcome to avoid unintended negative effects on other aspects of the organization
continuing with current activities if doing so does not entail serious risks
the system of task reporting and authority relationships within which the organization does its work
involves making changes in present activities if doing so presents no serious risks
a popular trend aimed at reducing the size of corporate staff and middle management to reduce costs
vigilant information processing
involves thoroughly investigating all possible alternatives weighing their costs and benefits before making a decision and developing contingency plans
everything outside an organization including people other organizations economic factors objects and events that lie outside the boundaries of the organization
the mechanical and intellectual processes that transform inputs into outputs
this structure is characterized by horizontal specialization by professional area of expertise little formalization and decentralized decision making
this structure is typical of relatively small or new organizations and has little specialization or formalization power and decision making are concentrated in the chief executive
the plans and actions necessary to achieve organizational goals
the three structural imperatives environment, technology and size and the three primary determinants of organizational structure
this environment includes specific organizations groups and individuals that influence the organization
an approach to organization design in which prescriptions or propositions are designed to work in any circumstance
usually are established to solve a particular organizational problem
relatively permanent group
composition of a group
a group described in terms of the homogenity or hetergeneity of group members
if members of the group differ along one or more dimensions
if members are similar in one of the several traits such as age - work experience education or technical specialty or cultural background
accomomodation among groups
occurs when the groups goals are compatible but interactions are not considered important to goal attainment
competition among groups
when the goals of the interacting groups are incompatible and the interactions are important to goal attainment
usually refers to people or animals organized to work together
the jobs in work groups are usually defined in narrow descriptions of highly specialized jobs that require minimal training
small groups of employees from the same work area who meet regularly to discuss and recommend solutions to problems
permanent groups to do normal everyday work of the team and usually make decisions about how the work of the team will be performed
steps in implemeting teams
planning the change - making the decision - preparing for implementation
phases of implementation
phase 1 startup - reality and unrest - leader centered teams - tightly formed teams - self managing teams
behavioral approaches to leadership
came from Michigan studies - the Ohio state studies and the leadership grid
job centered leader
behavior occurs when the leader pays close attention to the work of subordinates
employee centered leader behavior
behavior occurs when the leader attempts to develop a cohesive work group and ensure that employees are basically satisfied with thier jobs
job centered and employee cenetred leader
behavior were presumed to be at opposite ends of a single dimension
Ohio state studies
studies based on a questionairre designed to assess subordinates perceptions of ther leaders behavior
Robert Blake and Jane srygley Mouton
who developed the Leadership grid
developed the contingency theory - considers the personality of the leader and the complexities of the situation
task versus relationship motivation
parallels job centered and initiating structure leader behavior
who contends the only alternative is to change the situation through job engineering
Results of the contingency model
inconsistent LPC lacks validity
Path goal theory of leadership
developed by Martin Evans and Robert House
Theory that allows for the possibility of adapting leadership to the situation
path goal theory
achievement oriented leadership
leader sets challenging goals - expects subordinates to perform at thier highest level
occurs when the leader lets subordinates know what is expected of them -gives specific guidance
Vroom decision tree approach
leadership model focuses on a songle aspect of leader behavior - subordinate participation in decision making
Victor Vroom - and Philip Yetton
decision model that takes the form of tree
Hersey Blanchard Model
model of leadership identifies different combinations of leadership presumed to work best with different levels of organizational maturity on the part of followers
John RP French and Bertram Raven
developed a framework for studying five general bases of power in organizational change
French and Raven
developed - legitimate power - reward power - coercive power -expert power and referent power
who developed a useful perspective for understanding how power might be used
Gerald Cavanaugh - Dennis Moberg and Manuel Velasquez
who developed a model of ethical political behavior
rational approach to decision making
describes a systematic - step by step rocess
behaviorial approach to decision making
assumes decision makers act with bounded rationality rather than with perfect rationality
practical approach to decision making
combines the advantageous features of the rational and behavioral approaches
personal approach to decision making
Janis Mann process called the conflict model
Janis Mann process
decision process that makes 5 assumptions - deals only with important life decisions
technique developed by the Rand Corp - a method of systematically gathering the judgments of experts for use in developing forecasts
who developed the structuring the organization effectively