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Ku Klux Klan

Using Threats to African Americans from participating in politics -

Compromise of 1877

Compromise that enables Hayes to take office in return for the end of Reconstruction-

Plessy Vs. Ferguson

a case that was brought to supreme court by black lawsuits to challenge the legality of segregation. The court ruled that segregation was legal as long as it was "equal"-

Jim Crow laws

Colorline between blacks and whites-

Poll Tax

you have to pay to vote so most blacks could not vote because they did not have enough money-

Literacy tests

Method used to deny African-Americans the vote in the South that tested a person's ability to read and write - they were done very unfairly so even though most African-Americans could read and write by the 1950's they still failed.-

Thirteenth Amendment

abolished slavery +

Johnsons Reconstruction

Required former Confederate states to ratify the 13th amendment before they could rejoin the union +

Black Codes

Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves -

Amnesty Act of 1872

gave forgiveness to former Confederates and Whites in the South and allowed them to vote again -

Fifteenth Amendment

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. +

Civil Rights Act of 1866

law that gave African Americans citizenship and guaranteed them the same legal rights as while Americans +

Fourteenth Amendment

granted full citizenship to all individuals born in the united states +

Johnsons Impeachment

Johnson was removed from office +


system in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops -

Freedmans Bureau

The bureau's focus was to provide food, medical care, administer justice, manage abandoned and confiscated property, regulate labor, and establish schools.


the south was economically devastated by the civil war


military defeat in the civil war brought white southerners to accept the reality of northern political domination.


the newly freed laves often used their liberty to travel or seek lost loved ones.


the focus of black community life after emancipation became the church


lincoln's 10 percent plan was designed to return the Southern states to the Union Quickly and with few restrictions.


southerners first feared andrew johnson because he had been one of the few elite planters who backed Lincoln.


the cause of black education was greatly advanced by white northern female teachers who came south after the civil war


the enactment of the black codes in the south strengthened those who supported a moderate approach to reconstruction


congressional republicans demanded that the southern states ratify the fourteenth amendment in order to be readmitted to the union.


radical republicans succeeded in their goal of redistributing land to the former slaves


during reconstruction, blacks controlled most of the Southern state legislatures


the republican reconstruction legislature enacted educational and other reforms in southern state government


the Ku Klux KLan largely failed in its goal of intimidating blacks and preventing them from voting.


johnson's impeachment was essentially an act of political vindictiveness by radical republicans


the moderate republican plan for reconstruction might have succeeded if the KKK had been suppressed

lost family members

After emancipation, man blacks traveled in order to find ___ ___ ___ or seek new economic opportunities

food, clothes, and education

The freedmen's bureau was originally established to provide ___ ___ and ____ for emancipated slaves


Lincoln's original plan for reconstruction in 1863 was that a state could be re-integrated into the union when ____ percent of its voters took an oath of allegiance to the union and pledged to abide by emancipation

labor force

the black codes passed by many of the southern state governments in 1865 aimed to ensure a stable and subservient ___ ____ under white control


the congressional elections of ___ resulted in a decisive defeat for johnson, and a veto proof republican congress

moderate republicans

in contrast to radical republicans, ____ ______ generally favored states' rights and opposed direct federal involvement in the individuals' lives

Reconstruction act of 1867

besides putting the south under the rule of federal soldiers, the Military ____ ____ ___ ____ required that southern states give blacks the vote as a condition of readmittance to the UNion

full citizenship and civil rights

The 14th amendment provided for __ ___ and __ ___ for former slaves

voting rights

the 15th amendment provided for __ __ for former slaves


women's rights leaders opposed the 14th and 15th amendments because the amendments granted citizenship and voting rights to black and white men, but not to _____

union league

The right to vote encouraged southern black men to organize a ____ _____ as a vehicle for political empowerment and self-defense

white northerners, white southerners, blacks

the radical reconstruction regimes in the southern states included ___ ___, __ ____, and ______

union soldiers, businessmen, professionals

most of the Northern "carpetbaggers" were actually former __ ___, ___, or ____

failure, one

the radical republicans' impeachment of president andrew johnson resulted in: a ____ to convict and remove johnson by only ___ vote


the skeptical public finally accepted seward's purchase of alaska because ______ had been the only great power friendly to the union during the civil war


common term for the blacks newly liberated from slavery

freedmen's bureau

federal agency that greatly assisted blacks educationally but failed in other aid efforts


largest african american church after slavery

ten percent

lincoln's 1863 program for a rapid reconstruction of the South


constitutional amendment that freed all of the slaves

black code

the harsh southern state laws of 1865 that limited black rights and imposed restrictions to ensure a stable black labor supply


the constitutional amendment granting civil rights to freed slaves and barring former confederates from office


republican reconstructionists who favored a more rapid restoration of Southern state governments and opposed radical plans for drastic economic transformation of the south


republican reconstructionists who favored keeping the south out of the federal government until a complete social and economic revolution was accomplished in the region

union league

the black political organization that promoted self-help and defense of political rights

ex parte milligan

supreme court ruling that miitary tribunals could not try civilians when the civil courts were open


derogatory terms for white southerners who cooperated with the republican reconstruction governments


deragotory term for northerners who came to the south during reconstruction and sometimes took part in republican state governments


constitutional amendment guaranteeing blacks the right to vote


blacks who left the south for kansas and elsewhere during reconstruction

Oliver Howard

problack general who led an agency that tried to assist the freedmen

Andrew Johnson

born a white southerner, he became the white south's champion against radical reconstruction

Abraham Lincoln

author of moderate "10%" reconstruction plan that ran into congressional opposition

Civil Rights bill of 1866

first congressional attempt to guarantee black rights in the south, passed over johnson's veto

Charles Sumner

beaten in the senate chamber b4 civil war, he became the leader of the senate republican radicals during reconstruction.

Thaddeus Stevens

leader of radical republicans in the House of Reps

military reconstruction act of 1867

congressional law that imposed military rule on the south and demanded harsh conditions fore readmission of the seceded states

Hiram Revels

black republican senator from Mississippi during reconstruction

Ku Klux Klan

secret organization that intimidated blacks and worked to restore white supremacy

force acts of 1870 and 1871

laws designed to stamp out Ku Klux KLan terrorism in the south

tenure of office act

constitutionally questionable law whose violation by president johnson formed the basis for his impeachment

Union League

leading black political organization during reconstruction

Benjamin Wade

president pro tempore of the sunate who hoped to become president of the US after johnson's impeachment conviction

William Seward

secretary of state who arranged an initially unpopular but valuable land deal in 1867

The Freedmen's Bureau

To cope with the issues following emancipation(unskilled, unlettered, no property or money, knowledge how to survive) Congress created this Bureau in 1865. It was intended to e a kind of primitive welfar agency. It would provide food, clothing, medical care, and education to both freedmen and to white refugees. It had its greatest success in education.

Wade-Davis Bill

Republicans sent this through Congress in 1864 (feared the restoration od the planter aristocracy and reenslavement of blacks). The bill required 50 percent of a state's voers take the oath of allegiance and demanded stronger safeguards for emancipation than Lincoln;s as the price of readmission. Lincoln "pocket-vetoed" this bill by refusing to sign it. The controversy surrounding the bill revealed the deep differences between the president and congress.

Black Codes

Laws designed to regulate the affairs of the emancipated blacks-much as the slave statues had done inpre-Civil War days. They varied in severity from state to state. They aimed first of all to ensure a stable and subservient labor force. Dire penalties werer imposed on the blacks who "jumped" their labor contracts. The codes sought to restore as nearly as possible the pre-emancipation system o race relations. All blacks were forbidden to serve on jury, some from renting/leasing land, nor could they vote and they could be punished for idleness.


A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops.

Civil Rights Bill

Republicans passed this bill which conferred on backs the privlidge of American citizenship and struck at the Black Codes.

14th Amendment

1) conferred civil rights, including citizenship but exclding the franchise, on the freedmen 2) reduced proprtionately the represenation of a state in congress and in the Electoral College if it denied blacks the ballot 3) disqualified from federal and state office former Confederates who as federal office holders has once sworn "to support the Constitution of the US" and 4) guaranteed the federal debt, while repudiatin all Confederate dets.

Reconstruction Act

Law that divided the South into 5 military districts, each commanded by a union general and policed by Union soldiers. It also required that states wishing to be re-admitted into the Union had to ratify the 14th Amendment, and that states' constitutions had to allow former adult male slaves to vote.

15th Amendment

Congress passed in 1869 an amendment that said :citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude. Women desired for suffrage as well thought this was not included.

Union League

A group of Southern black men-freedmen, assisted by blacks from the North, turned this league into a network of political clubs that educated members in their civic duties and campaigned for Republican candidates. The mission expanded to include building blck churchs and schools, representing black grienvances before locl employers and government and recruiting militias to protect black communities from white retaliation.


Southerners often former Unionists and Whigs. Accused of wild exaggeration, plundering the treasuries of the Southern states through political influence in the radical governments.


Sleazy Northerners who has packed all their worldy goods into a carpetbah suicase at war's end and had come South to seek personal power and profit.

Klu Klux Klan

Invisible Empire of the South, founded in TN in 1866. They were a secret society organized in the South to reassert white supremecy by means of terrorism. Created in fear of black overthrow and issurection. Wore long white flowing sheets and believed that they possesed the spirits of the confederate dead.

Force Acts

In 1870 and 1871 the government banned the use of terror, force or bribery to prevent someone from voting because of their race. Other laws banned the KKK entirely and brought forth military help to enforce these laws.

Tenure of Office Act

Law Congress passed in 1867 that required te president to secure te consent of theSenate before he could remove his appointees once they hasbeen approed by that body. One Purpose was to freee into the cabinet the Secretary of War-Edim Stanton.

Lincoln's Plan for Reconstruction

10% of citizens take loyalty oath gains readmission to union

John Wilkes Booth

Lincoln's assassin at Ford's Theatre

Ex Parte Milligan

military trials of civilians were illegal

Radical Republicans

believed the South should be harshly punished

Wade-Davis Bill

An attempt to weaken the power of the president. Lincoln vetoed it

Conquered territory theory

Southern states had actually left the union

Black codes

reinstituted slave-like conditions for blacks

Thaddeus Stevens

Radical Republican leader from PA

Andrew Johnson

First impeached president

Freedmen's Bureau

first government agency to help people

Ku Klux Klan

White-supremacist group to fight Reconstruction

Thirteenth Amendment

Freed slaves

Fourteenth Amendment

full citizenship to all including former slaves and immigrants

Fifteenth Amendment

No one could be denied the right to vote on account of race

Tenure of Office Act

forbade the president from removing officers without Senate's consent


bring charges against a public official


term for Southerners who were working with the North


term applied to Northerners who migrated south

Secretary of State William Seward

supporter of the Alaskan purchase

Solid South

the one-party (Democrat) system of the South for 100 years


Very similar to slavery, bound free blacks to former owners


rebuilding of the south after the civil war

Abe Lincoln

the president of the US during the time of the civil war, he wanted to make it easier for the south to join the union again

John Wilkes Booth

assassinator of Lincoln, he partly caused the 13th amendment have to be ratified by the states

Andrew Johnson

he became president after Lincoln, was assassinated. The plan that he proposed was rebelled by congress because it let leader(s) of the confederate be able to hold office.

Problems faced by the North

There were no jobs, and since the war orders were canceled, the factories were laying off (firing) workers.

Problems faced by the South

The railroads were destroyed, the major cities were wrecked, and the money system was corrupt; the money was worthless.

Lincoln's Plan for the South

The 10% Plan which included amnesty- which let a southern state form a new government if 10% of its voters swore loyalty to the union, and amnesty let the confederates swore loyalty to the union to be pardoned; although this didn't apply to confederate leaders

The Wade-Davis Bill

This was the rival plan to the 10% Plan. This required a majority of white men in a southern state swear loyalty to the union , although it didn't let anyone who worked for the confederacy vote or hold office. Lincoln thought this was too harsh so he vetoed the bill.

The Freedmen's Bureau

The compromise of The Wade-Davis Bill and The 10% plan. This helped poor slaves and whites by giving food, clothes and medical care.

The 13th Amendment

No Slavery

The 14th Amendment

Equal Rights Amendment

The 15th Amendment

This allowed all MEN of any race or color to vote.

Black Codes

Laws passed to take blacks' rights away like right to vote, own a weapon, or serve in a jury. This also included job restrictions.

Radical Republicans ( Thaddeus Stevens & Charles Sumner)

The two main goals of the radical republicans were to brea the power of wealthy plantation owners and they wanted to give freedmen the right to vote.

Civil rights Act

This secured the rights of freedmen.

How did Radical Republicans gain power in Congress?

They proposed the 14th Amendment, which convinced many moderate republians to join their side.

Why did Congress impeach Andrew Johnson?

Because they charged for high crimes and misdeameanors, when in fact he didn't do anything, but he was being charged for his beliefs


A name used for a white republican traitor , it orginally meant a small scruffy horse


northerners who came to the south after war hoping to get rich on the reconstruction, they flung clothes into cheap suitcases because they were in that much of a rush

What role did freedmen play in reconstruction governments?

They were elected into office, some were in congress

What were goals of groups like the KKK and the White League?

They wanted toeliminate blacks and scalawags and prevent them from voting and being in office

What were some challenges reconstruction governments faced?

There weren;t any funds and that people were resisiting by making the KKK...

Why did many freedmen and porr whites become freedem and why were they in the cycle of poverty?

There was no land to be owned and the plantation owners needed workers. They sunk deeper into debt becasue many of them couldn't pay back the items they took on credit.

poll taxes

taxes that required voters to pay a fee everytime they voted, since freedem could barely afford these, they didn't vote

literacy tests

tests that required freedmen to write and explain parts of the constitution, and then they would be able to vote, since many freedmen were illiterate, these tests "shunned" the freedmen away

grandfather clauses

this was passed to increase the # of voters, if the voter's faher or grandfather had been eligible to vote on Jan 1, 1867, then they didn't have to take the literacy tests


"legal" separation of races

Jim Crow Laws

These laws separated blacks and whites in schools, restaurants, theaters, streetcars, trains, playgrounds, hospitals and even cemetaries. These left blacks in a hopeless situation

Plessy VS Ferguson

a case that was brought to supreme court by black lawsuits to challenge the legality of segregation. The court ruled that segregation was legal as long as it was "equal"

Why did radical republicans lose power in congress?

Because they northerners grew tired of trying to rebuild the south, they wanted them to "fend" for themselves, they also started to lose faith in the radicals.

Why did the presidential election of 1876 lead to the end or reconstruction?

Because Hayes had privately agreed to quit reconstruction once he got the disputed electoral votes.

How did the southern economy benefit after reconstruction?

It was more balanced and they started to tap into their natural resoaurces like coal....

Goals of Reconstruction

To rebuild the South and reunite the nation as smoothly and quickly as possible

Radical Republicans

People that wanted harsh punishment for the Confederacy and suffrage for African Americans

Andrew Johnson

Enemy of Radical Republicans. They are annoyed when he does not do anything about the South's black codes, which limits the rights of African Americans.

Length of Reconstruction

11 years (end of Civil War in 1865 to election of 1876).

End of Reconstruction

Election of 1976 brought the Radical Republicans a loss of power and Northerners were tired of Reconstruction and wanted to forget the Civil War.

Results of Reconstruction

Passage of the 13th Amendment, ending slavery, and the passage of the 14th and 15th Amendments, which further protect the rights of African Americans.

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