Conceptual Physics Chapter 4 Newton's Laws DEFINITIONS CADEN

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Terms in this set (...)

Inertia
the tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion. or An object in motion (or at rest) will tend to stay in motion (or at rest) until an outside force acts upon it to change it.
Important point: Matter has no preferred state to stop or remain in motion
Mass
the amount of matter in an object. More specifically, it is the measure of the inertia that an object exhibits in response to any effort made to start it, stop it, or change in any way its current state of motion
Weight
the force of gravity on an object
kilogram (kg)
the basic SI unit of mass
Newton
A unit of measure that equals the force required to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at 1 meter per second per second
Volume
The amount of space an object takes up
Force
A push or pull exerted on an object
Mechanical equilibrium
the state of an object or system of objects for which any impressed forces cancel to zero and no acceleration occurs
Friction
the resistance force that opposes the motion or attempted motion of an object past another with which it is in contact. This is the force that opposes motion and it is the result of the contact of two surfaces causing a reduction in speed until the object stops. Matter (atoms) of one will attract the matter of the other. More attraction causes more frictional force.
free fall
when the only force acting on an object is gravity
Terminal Speed/Velocity
The speed at which the acceleration of a falling object terminates because air resistance balances its weight.
∑F = ma
∑ = "sum of", the Greek capital letter "sigma"
∑F = sum of the forces (F is bold print, a vector)
m = mass
a = resulting acceleration (a is bold print, a vector)
The formula used to find the total force needed to move an object by calculating its mass and acceleration.
Newton's Second Law formula
Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
answered the Why's of physical situations. He discovered the three laws of motion, developed a theory describing gravity, did the famous prism experiment (light has many colors), developed calculus, and built the first reflecting telescope.
Newton's 1st Law of Motion
An object at rest/motion will remain at rest/motion until acted upon by an outside force
Newton's Second Law
Force equals mass times acceleration
Newton's 3rd Law -- Action/Reaction
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