74 terms

Beekeeping Final

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Brood diseases
American Foulbrood
European Foulbrood
Chalkbrood
Sacbrood
Scales
dead left over integument
American Foulbrood causal agent
Bacillus larvae (sporeforming bacterium)
American Foulbrood symptoms
glue-like odor; discolored, sunken, perforated cappings; black difficult to remove scales (sticky)
American Foulbrood diagnose
"Ropy" test stick inserted into cell contents drawn into long string
American Foulbrood treatment
Burn hive (kill spores)
Oxytetracycline hydrochloride (Large # of hives/more preventative measure)
European Foulbrood causal agent
Melissococus pluton (bacterium)
European Foulbrood symptoms
sour odor; some discolored, sunken, perforated cappings, black twisted easy to remove scales
European Foulbrood treatment
Requeening with more resistant stock, Oxytetracycline (prevention), reduce stress on colony
Chalkbrood causal agent
Ascosphaera apis (fungus)
Chalkbrood symptoms
White mouldy larvae later grey-black, hard, chalk-like
Chalkbrood treatment
Requeening with more resistant stock, move hive drier location and widen entrance to create better air circulation
Sacbrood causal agent
Virus
Sacbrood symptoms
Larvae appears as water-filled sac; head predominantly curled scales, integument gets harder
Sacbrood treatment
No recommended treatment
Adult brood diseases
Nosema
Nosema causal agent
Nosema apis (spore-forming microsporidian)
Nosema symptoms
Diarrhea, vomiting, inability to fly, lack of stinging ability, bees crawling around entrance (worker bees throw sick bees out of hive), decreased egg-laying capacity in queens, reduced life span in workers and drones
-infects midgut of digestive tract
Nosema treatment
Antibiotic Fumagillin (Fumidil B/Nosem-X)
How disease get transmitted?
-Beekeeper brought in from contaminated hive
-contaminated tools
-contaminated honey (beekeeper brought in, bees robbed contaminated hive)
Pesticide definition
chemical substances kill/adversely reduced population
Bee poisoning symptoms
High number of dead bees in front of hives
Decline in brood
Farmer Recommendations to prevent poisoning
-Toxicity: Least hazardous pesticides, lowest effective rate
-Formulation of Pesticides: Use sprays/granules instead of dusts
-Pesticides only when needed, local spot treatments instead of fields, few treatments as possible
-Time of application: Spray at night and early morning
Beekeeper Recommendations to prevent poisoning
-Cover hives (24 hours before), make sure good ventilation
-Communicate with neighbors
-Place hive in safer area (away from drift), covered by trees
Bee dance purpose and types
-communicate the distance and direction of a floral source to potential recruits
-Round dance
-Wag tail dance
-Forager bee goes back to hive and waits to be recruited to an active floral source once their source runs out
Round dance
-shorter distance, close to hive
Wag tail (waggle) dance
-further distance, direction
Distance (waggle)
Number of straight runs done in 15 seconds (closer source=more straight runs, excited)
Are there more or less straight runs down if the floral source is close?
More straight runs, excited
Direction (waggle)
angle of straight runs=direction of floral source
Factors determine angle
hive, floral source, sun (reference point)
Split definition
a procedure by which the beekeeper takes one hive and "splits" it to make two hives (Divide hive into two, divide brood in half)
Reasons for splits
Acquire more hives since hive too big; Requeen (Queen not producing enough eggs); change hive characteristics
Split process
1. Select a hive that is very strong and has a large number of bees
2. Have a hive box w/ bottom board ready next to hive that will be split
3. Split resources in half (Remove 2-4 frames of brood w/ bees from strong hive into new hive body)
4. Queen stays with old colony
5. Additional frame of pollen w/ honey placed into new hive body
6. Replace empty frames in old hive
7. Place new queen cells
Requeening definition
Replace existing queen with a new queen
Types of requeening
1. Natural/Spontaneous Queen cells
2. Natural cells w/ Beekeeper control
3. Grafting
Requeening process
1. Remove queen couple days previous (no pheromones), make sure no existing queen cells if there are kill them
2. Multiple techniques to get a new queen- Either purchase queen (caged queen), introduce queen from another hive, take a queen cell (grafting) and place into hive that is being requeened
3. Wait about a week for the queen to either be accepted or rejected by the colony
Emergency queen cells
Worker cell built out into queen cell has less than 3 day old larvae and fed royal jelly for whole larvae stage
Reasons for requeening
Old queen failing; bring new genetics into hive to change disposition (aggressive) or improve brood pattern (low honey and pollination)
Queen rearing Process
1. Pick a hive with the genetics you want (good disposition/production, resistance/tolerance to pests) and with lots of nurse bees, take less than 3 day old larvae from it's frames
2. Remove old queen from colony that is being requeened couple days before to remove queen's pheromones
3. Using grafting tool to scoop up less than 3 day old larvae and place into manmade queen cell starters in the same position the larvae was removed
4. Place frame of queen cell starters into queenless colony for the worker bees to build out
5. Remove queen cell frame before 11-12 days (day 10) before emergence (day 16) (In Hawaii, may have to remove 6 days after since tend to emergy early (day 12), don't want to move too early however can damage larvae
6. Place queen cells into hives that were chosen to be requeened
7. Take 2 months for production to begin again and show signs of improvement
Swarming definition
a collection of bees that have left its original hive, nature's way of producing more hives and colonizing bees into new areas
Reasons for swarming
Overcrowding/false sense of crowdedness, improper ventilation, failing queen
Result of swarming
Increase natural population
still utilize original habitat
Anatomy of a swarm
2 parts
1. Outer shell: 3 bees deep thick
2. Inner core: chains of bees, queen in center
Remedies for a swarm
Split hive, Add another hive body, Replace failing queen
How to collect and establish swarm
1. Shake swarm into temporary box
2. Cover it
3. Put into Langstroth hive (tap box, flip into hive, close cover)
4. Food frame (honey, pollen)
5. Frame with less than 3 day old larvae
Swarm trap: Put in tree with attractant, bees enter, cover hole
Good conditions of hive
dark, enclosed, off the ground, adequate space
Moving a hive basic rules
3,3 rule- 3 feet or 3 miles move hive to prevent bees from going back to old hive
How to move hive less than 3 miles?
Move 3 miles then wait a couple weeks before moving back in 3 feet
Moving a hive 3 feet process
1. Smoke bees into hive (move at anytime of day)
2. Close/block entrance with towel
3. Move hive 3 feet increments
Moving a hive 3 miles process
1. During day place screened cover and regular cover over it (ventilation)
2. Move in late afternoon/night or next morning
3. Close/block entrance with towel
4. Duct tape hive bodies
5. Move 3 miles or more
Greater Wax Moth scientific name
Galleria mellonella
Less Wax Moth
Achroia grisella
Wax Moth symptoms
Damage comb, white webbing on comb, pupae on top bar, weaker hive, check oil tray white larvae
Wax Moth treatment
Strengthen hive, combine hive, sanitation (cut out bad comb)
Small hive beetle scientific name
Aethina tumida
Small hive beetle symptoms
-Honey ferments becomes slimy in comb making the comb unuseable, burrow into comb, check oil tray for larvae
-Adult & larvae feed on pollen, honey, comb, bee brood
Small hive beetle treatment
Sanitation, paper, oil tray
USDA color standards (lightest to darkest)
o Water white
o Extra white
o White
o Extra light amber
o Light amber
o Amber
o Dark amber
What effects flavor and aroma?
caramelization, smoke, fermentation, chemicals
What effects clarity?
May contain air bubbles or pollen grains (affect appearance)
Grade A
Percent soluble solids higher 81.4%
Practically free of defects
Flavor & Aroma: Good- free from caramelization, smoke, fermentation, chemicals
Clarity: Clear, May contain air bubbles or pollen grains but does not affect appearance
Grade B
Percent soluble solids higher 81.4%
Reasonably free of defects
Flavor & Aroma: Reasonably Good- practically free from caramelization, smoke, fermentation, chemicals
Clarity: Reasonably Clear, May contain air bubbles or pollen grains but does not materially affect appearance
Grade C
Percent soluble solids higher 80.0%
Fairly free of defects
Flavor & Aroma: Fairly Good- reasonably free from caramelization, smoke, fermentation, chemicals
Clarity: Fairly Clear, May contain air bubbles or pollen grains but does not seriously affect appearance
Substandard
Fails Grade C
What is the highest grade score?
100 points
What is the requirement for honey to receive a grade?
Honey can only be graded if they are pollinated from 1 plant source
What does a higher percentage of soluble solids mean?
More sugar=sweeter, lower percentage of moisture content (water)
Grading honey factors
-Percent soluble solids
- Absence of defects
- Flavor & aroma (determined by flower)
- Clarity
Factors not graded
Plant source
Color
Advertisement Names associated with grade
-Standard: Grade C
-Fancy: Grade A
-Choice: Grade B
What grade is advertised as Fancy?
Grade A
What grade is advertised as Choice?
Grade B
What grade is advertised as Standard?
Grade C