7.L.2.1-2.2 Genetics

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Terms in this set (...)

Heredity
the passing of traits from parents to offspring
Nucleus
control center of eukaryotic cells responsible for containing chromosomes which contain DNA
Chromosomes
pairs of coiled DNA located in the nucleus, formed from chromatin; 23 pairs of these in humans
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid; carries instructions that determine the traits of an organism
Genes
unit of hereditary which determines the traits you recieve; segment of DNA
Alleles
letters that represent the traits; capital represents dominance, lowercase represents recessive;
Meiosis
cell division resulting in sex cells or gametes (sperm & egg); each is haploid or half the chromosomes of each parent cell.
Mitosis
cell division resulting in body/somatic cells; each is diploid containing an exact copy of the original cell.
Dominant
traits that overshadow and is usually seen;; represented by a capital letter; alleles that are more prominent and overcome recessive alleles
Recessive
traits that hide in the background; represented by a lowercase letter; alleles that are weaker and are overcome by dominant alleles
Genotype
all the letters that represent the trait; genetic constitution of an individual
Ex: RR, Rr, rr
Phenotype
the physical expression of the trait; what you see based on genotype
Ex: Freckles, Detached Lobes, Brown Eyes
Genetic engineering
process of altering an organism's DNA (its genetic material) to get desired traits
Selective Breeding
process of breeding similar organisms to get desired traits
Hybridization
crossing two genetically different organisms resulting in an organism that is said to have best traits from both parents Ex: Liger, Mule Langaroo
Cloning
process of making an exact copy of the organism by copying the DNA and placing it into a stimulated egg in order for it to divide
Pedigree
chart that traces a particular trait through family history
Gene Splicing
when genes are cut out and replaced by better ones (form of gene therapy)
Gregor Mendel
Austrian monk who experimented with garden pea plants and studied inheritance in 1854; also known as the "father of genetics"
Punnet Square
a table used to predict what traits an offspring will have based on what genes their parents have.
Genome
All the genetic information in an organism; all of an organism's chromosomes.
Budding (asexual)
when a new organism grows out of the parent's body of a parent.
cell cycle
The regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo
cell division
Process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
cell theory
idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells
Zygote
a diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes; a fertilized ovum.
haploid cell
A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).
diploid cell
A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.
somatic cells
Any cells in the body other than reproductive cells
binary fission
A form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size