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AP World Studies Early Modern Era
Strayer Ways of the World Chapters 14, 15, 16. Online quiz questions. (Multiple Choice)
Terms in this set (120)
1. Why was it Portugal, Spain, France, and Britain that first expanded into the new world?
a. These lands had a long tradition of distant exploration.
b. These lands were Muslim.
c. *These lands were on the Atlantic coast.
d. These lands believed in ancient legends of a lost world across the ocean.
The answer is c. These powers were simply closer to the new world, and once they were able to understand and master the consistent wind patterns of the Atlantic, it was much easier for them to go to the Americas than it was for any Asian competitors.
2. Which of the following was NOT a motivation for Europeans to expand into the Americas?
a. To cut out Muslim intermediaries from trade with Asia
b. To spread Christianity
c. To escape religious and ethnic persecution within Europe
d. To flee from repeated Asian and Muslim invasions.
The answer is d. Though invasions from the Ottoman Turks and Mongolian armies did threaten Europeans, the Europeans who led the expansion to the Americas were along the Atlantic coast, and so mostly protected from the threats from Asia. (see page 406)
3. Why did some Native Americans aid the Spanish in their invasion of the New World?
a. Payment in gold and jewels
b. A desire to learn about European culture
c. To gain an advantage against their own enemies
d. No Native Americans helped the Spanish
The answer is c. Many Mesoamerican tribes who had been victimized by the Aztecs wanted to help the Spanish destroy the Aztecs, and each side in an Incan civil war wanted the Spanish to fight the other side for them. (see page 406)
4. What import from Europeans wiped out as many as nine-tenths of the Native American population?
The answer is a. Cannons, colonists, and horses all helped Europeans rapidly conquer the Native Americans, but the Native populations had been mostly already decimated by deadly European diseases such as smallpox that spread in advance of the Europeans. (see page 407)
5. The silver mines in Mexico and Peru allowed the Spanish conquerors to buy massive amounts of what highly valuable commodities?
a. Chinese silk, tea, and porcelain
b. British fishing vessels
c. Incan and Aztec soldiers
d. Cotton from North America
The answer is a. A vast majority of the silver mined through slave labor in Mexico and Peru made its way to China in exchange for Chinese silk, tea, and porcelain, which were highly valued and difficult to get in Spain. (see pages 408 through 409)
6. Mercantilism, the guiding principle of most early colonial empires, meant
a. encouraging more people to become merchants for the king or queen.
b. recording the air temperatures of various parts of the empire.
c. accumulating precious metals through exports from the colonies.
d. keeping interest rates low in colonial banks so colonists could afford land.
The answer is c. All European empires were mainly focused on stockpiling huge bullion (gold, silver and other precious metals) reserves. Colonies provided closed markets for the manufactured goods of the mother country. (see pages 409 through 410)
7. Why was there such a large mestizo (mixed Spanish and Native American) population in South and Central America?
a. Lack of available birth control in Native American society
b. Bonuses given by the Spanish government to Spanish colonists who sired children
c. Policy of mass rape on behalf of Spanish authorities against Native American women
d. Enormous gender imbalance among early Spanish settlers
The answer is d. Early in the Spanish colonization of South and Central America, the presence of seven Spanish men for every Spanish woman in the colonies led to many Spaniards siring children with Native American women. (see page 411)
8. What happened to Native Americans' religious beliefs when confronted with Catholicism?
a. They rejected Catholicism completely.
b. They blended their old customs easily into Catholic practices.
c. They only pretended to be Catholic when Europeans were around.
d. They completely abandoned their old religions, and embraced Catholicism entirely.
The answer is b. Most Native Americans in Latin America fused their beliefs in different gods or magic spirits with worship of different saints, and merged their old religious festivals with Christian holidays. (see page 412)
9. Where did the majority of enslaved Africans end up once brought across the Atlantic?
a. Brazil and the Caribbean
d. North America.
The answer is a. The coastal areas of Brazil and the Caribbean Islands did not have much gold or silver, but were well suited to growing sugar. Because sugar plantations require many workers and most of the Native Americans in those places were already dead, the English, French, Portuguese, and Dutch empires used African slaves to grow the sugar. (see page 413)
10. All of the following differences existed between the British colonies and the Portuguese/Spanish colonies, EXCEPT:
a. More racial interbreeding occurred in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies.
b. British colonists were far more numerous than Spanish colonists.
c. The British colonists sought to escape European traditions, while Spanish/Portuguese sought to recreate it in the Americas.
d. The British colonization began a full 100 years before the Spanish/Portuguese colonization.
The answer is d. British colonization of North America actually began 100 after the Spanish and Portuguese colonization of South and Central America. (see pages 415 through 416)
11. What is one major reason for the higher literacy rates in British colonies than in Spanish/Portuguese colonies?
a. Paper was harder to maintain in the warm, humid Spanish/Portuguese colonies.
b. The British government invested massive funds into building libraries throughout North America.
c. Protestantism, which encouraged the reading of the Bible, was the dominant form of Christianity in the British colonies.
d. Spanish/Portuguese colonizers did not attempt to teach Native Americans to speak or read Spanish/Portuguese.
The answer is c. Protestantism held that every Christian should read the Bible for oneself, and thus put more emphasis on literacy, than in Catholic lands. (see page 416)
12. In North America, what percentage of African ancestry qualified a person as "black"?
a. 50 percent
b. 75 percent
c. Any at all
d. Any poor person, white or black, was considered "black"
The answer is c. In contrast to much of Latin America, especially Brazil, in North America even the slightest trace of African heritage meant one was considered "black" and treated similarly to those with 100 percent African ancestry. (see page 415)
13. Which of the following was the main source of wealth that the Russian empire gained from conquering Siberia?
a. Animal furs
The answer is a. The Russian empire forced the nomadic hunting tribes native to Siberia to pay tribute in the form of highly valuable animal furs, such as sable, which could be sold in Europe for large profits. (see pages 417 and 419)
14. Russia was a "society organized for continuous war" because
a. Russians are by nature extremely violent people.
b. it followed a particularly militaristic form of Christianity.
c. it bordered all the great powers of Asia.
d. Russians greatly admired the legacy of Genghis Khan.
The answer is c. The Russian empire bordered the Chinese empire, the Persian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and various Islamic empires, and was therefore in constant danger from and conflict with its neighbors. (see page 420)
15. The expansion of the Chinese and Russian empires into the steppe lands of central Asia led to what result for the nomadic peoples native to this vast area?
a. The political independence and economic prosperity of nomadic peoples came to an end.
b. The local religious customs and languages were completely erased.
c. A brief economic boom ensued, which encouraged many nomads to move to cities and buy houses.
d. They felt little impact; as long as they paid tribute, the nomadic peoples were mostly left alone.
The answer is a. The central Asian trade route known as the Silk Road was shut down as most trade shifted to the oceans, and though many of these peoples were allowed to keep some of their culture and language, they were no longer able to live freely on the plains as once they had. (see pages 423 through 424)
16. Akbar's policy toward the Hindus of India is best described as
b. religious tolerance and incorporation of Hindu elites.
c. massive efforts to convert Hindus to Islam.
d. holy war against Hindus.
The answer is b. Akbar was highly conscious of not forcing people to go against their religious or ethnic traditions, but encouraging religious and ethnic cooperation using his own lifestyle as an example to follow. (see page 424)
17. The Mughal Empire eventually failed to unite Hindus and Muslims because
a. Muslims and Hindus speak different languages.
b. Emperor Aurangzeb attempted to enforce Islam throughout India.
c. the Mughal rulers had a civil war between two competing emperors.
d. Christian missionaries exploited the differences between the two religions.
The answer is b. In contrast to his predecessor Akbar, Aurangzeb tried to enforce Islamic law on Hindus, leading to a revolt and the splintering of the Mughal Empire. (see page 425)
18. What was the "Terror of the Turk"?
a. Europeans' fear of an Islamic takeover of all Europe
b. A cruel torture method used by Ottoman soldiers
c. The Savafid Persian Empire, the great enemy of the Ottomans
d. A water-borne disease similar to dysentery
The answer is a. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Ottoman armies came close to taking over Europe, twice getting as far as Vienna, Austria, before being turned back. An Ottoman victory over all of Europe would likely have led to Islamic law in Christian countries. (see pages 427 through 428)
19. What aspects of the Ottoman society did many Europeans admire?
a. Their spirit of scientific innovation
b. Their spirit of religious tolerance
c. Their educational system
d. Their frequent and often rowdy culture of celebration and festivals
The answer is b. The Ottoman rulers actually allowed most religions in their empire to keep to themselves, as opposed to Christian Europe, which did not allow for any religious diversity. (see page 428)
20. What was the religious outcome of Ottoman rule in Christian Southeastern (Balkan) Europe?
a. The elimination of Christianity and massive conversion to Islam
b. No impact at all as tolerant Ottoman policies encouraged Christianity
c. Conversion to Islam of about 20 percent of the population
Persistent religious warfare between Muslims and Christians
The answer is c. Because of Ottoman policy of religious toleration, most European Christians under Ottoman rule were allowed to keep their religion. (see page 427)
1. The "Great Dying" was the mass depopulation of _______.
a. Native Africans
b. Native Asians
c. Native Americans
d. Native Gorillas
e. Native Australians
The answer is c. (see page 406)
2. Native American populations were reduced by as much as ______ percent by Eurasian diseases within a century of Columbus's first voyage.
The answer is a. (see page 407)
3. Native Americans were so susceptible to common Eurasian diseases because they had no _____ for those illnesses.
c. acquired immunity
The answer is c. (see page 407)
4. The Columbian Exchange led to immense population growth in Europe by introducing calorie-rich _____ as crops from the Americas.
a. cassava and peanuts
b. corn and potatoes
c. wheat and rye
d. coffee and sweet potatoes
e. beans and rice
The answer is b. (see page 408)
5. Spanish colonists born in the colonies (as opposed to having been born in Spain) were called ______.
The answer is e. (see page 411)
6. The British, French, Dutch, and Portuguese empires focused on growing and exporting ______ in Brazil and the Caribbean Islands.
c. opium poppies
d. hot peppers
The answer is a. (see page 412)
7. Free Blacks and mulattos had far greater opportunities in ______ than elsewhere in the Americas.
b. San Domingue (Haiti)
The answer is a. (see page 415)
8. By 1825, almost 70 percent of Brazil's population was either partially or completely of ______ descent.
b. Native American
The answer is e. (see page 414)
9. By the time of the American Revolution, _____ percent of the population of the British colonies in North America were Europeans.
e. Less than 1
The answer is a. (see page 416)
10. The Russian Empire replaced the ______ Empire that had once dominated large swaths of Asia.
The answer is d. (see page 417)
11. The Russian Empire, to this day, is a primarily _____ social and political system.
c. European and Asian
e. Scandinavian and Asian
The answer is c. (see page 420)
12. The Qing dynasty expanded the Chinese Empire into ______.
d. Central Asia
The answer is d. (see page 422)
13. The Qing rulers themselves were from _____, north of the Great Wall.
The answer is c. (see page 422)
14. The Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) fixed the border, thus avoiding war, between the ____________________empires.
a. Russian and Mughal
b. Russian and Persian
c. Japanese and Chinese
d. Russian and Japanese
e. Chinese and Russian
The answer is e. (see page 423)
15. The Central Asian warriors who conquered India in the sixteenth century were called the ______.
The answer is c. (see page 424)
16. Emperor Akbar's religious tolerance to non-Muslims in India was reversed by emperor ______.
The answer is a. (see page 425)
17. The Ottoman Empire was the heir to the ______ Empire.
The answer is d. (see page 425)
18. The elite military and government units of the Ottoman Empire were called the ______.
The answer is c. (see page 427)
19. In 1529 and in 1683 the Ottoman Empire besieged the central European capital of ______.
The answer is a. (see page 427)
20. Jews, fleeing persecution in Spain, found safe refuge in ______.
a. Qing China
d. the Ottoman Empire
e. Mughal India
The answer is d. (see page 427)
1. What was the one major advantage that allowed the small Portuguese fleet to dominate the Indian Ocean militarily?
a. They had large amounts of gold.
b. They could speak the languages of the cultures they encountered.
c. Their onboard cannon could defeat other ships and coastal forts.
d. They intermarried with local leaders' families.
The answer is c. The Portuguese, like other European naval powers, had advanced far ahead of the rest of the world in the area of naval technology, especially how to fire powerful cannons from on board, which could sink other ships and easily destroy stone fortifications. (see pages 435 through 436)
2. Which of the following is NOT a reason for the Portuguese Empire's steep decline in the Indian Ocean by 1600?
a. It was overextended.
b. Certain powers, such the Mughals and Japanese, resisted Portuguese control.
c. They were heavily outnumbered in their outposts.
d. The Spanish ousted the Portuguese from Asian waters.
The answer is d. Spain's power over the Philippines grew as the Portuguese were declining in power, and because Portugal was mainly focusing on preexisting trading posts, Spanish control over the Philippines would not have caused the Portuguese to lose power. (see page 437)
3. What strategic significance did the Philippines hold for Spain?
a. Christianity was already established on the islands.
b. They were close to China, but not ruled by China.
c. They could be used to launch attacks on Portuguese forts.
d. They were close to Australia.
Spain wanted trading links with China, which some parts of the Philippines had, but did not want to run into direct conflict with the Chinese government. (see page 438)
4. What was one main difference between the Spanish colonization of the Philippines and the Portuguese strongholds the Indian Ocean Basin?
a. The Spanish converted Filipinos to Christianity; the Portuguese often blended into the local populations.
b. The Spanish only established coastal outposts; the Portuguese conquered inland areas.
c. The Portuguese killed large amounts of natives; the Spanish did not use violence to enforce their rule.
d. The Portuguese were only interested in spreading Christianity; the Spanish were only interested in getting rich.
The answer is a. The Spanish exercised much more influence and control over Filipino culture, converting the Islanders to Christianity and teaching them to speak Spanish, whereas the Portuguese often abandoned their outposts and converted to local religions, customs, and languages. (see page xxx)
5. What was one main difference between the establishment of the British East India Company in Mughal India versus the establishment of the Dutch East India Company in Indonesia?
a. The British learned the local languages; the Dutch did not.
b. The British used treaties with local Mughal rulers; the Dutch violently conquered and killed many Indonesians.
c. The British encouraged intermarriage with elite local women; the Dutch took local women as sex slaves.
d. The British had to send 50 percent of their profits back to the government in London; the Dutch only had to send a small percentage of money back to their government.
The answer is b. The Mughal Empire was too strong for the British to defeat militarily, but the local inhabitants of the Indonesian islands were no match for Dutch military technology, and consequently the Dutch slaughtered and enslaved tens of thousands of Indonesians. (see page 440)
6. What was the attitude of Japanese shoguns toward Christian Europeans in Japan in the early seventeenth century?
a. They welcomed Europeans for their technological knowledge.
b. They welcomed Europeans as teachers of Christianity, and converted.
c. They violently expelled all but a few Europeans.
d. They were opposed to Europeans, but knew they were powerless to keep Europeans out of Japan.
The answer is c. The shoguns were opposed to Christianity and to all Europeans in Japan, and forced them all out violently, leaving only the Dutch, who were less interested in spreading Christianity, and only in a very small area. (see page 441)
7. Which of the following statements best describes the relationship of the new European trading networks in the Indian Ocean to other Asian commercial networks?
a. Europeans became just one small group among a vast number of thriving Asian commercial networks.
b. Europeans destroyed and took over almost all other Asian commercial networks.
c. Europeans gained access to commercial markets only where the local population converted to Christianity.
d. Europeans ended up gaining little for their efforts, eventually leaving Asia empty-handed.
The answer is a. Europeans played an important role once they established their military control over the seas, coasts, and some islands; but other Asians such as Javanese, Chinese, Malay, and other traders profited too from this European trade, and the vast inland Asian commerce system remained in Asian control. (see pages 441 through 442)
8. Which of the following was NOT a factor in the emergence of silver as the currency of global trade in the sixteenth century?
a. Skyrocketing Chinese demand for silver as a means for paying taxes.
b. The proximity of the Spanish Philippines to China.
c. The lack of any silver mines in Asia.
d. The discover of vast silver mines in Bolivia.
The answer is c. Though most of the world's silver came from Spanish colonies in the Americas, there were also large silver mines in Japan that played a role in feeding China's insatiable demand for the precious metal. (see page 442)
9. What impact did the discovery of the world's largest silver mine at Potosi have on the native (mostly) Incan population there?
a. They grew suddenly rich.
b. They were forced to work in deadly, hellish conditions.
c. They had been so decimated by disease that they barely noticed the new mine.
d. Realizing how valuable silver was to Europeans, they began digging for their own mines throughout the Andes.
The answer is b. Though Potosi became a silver-rush town in with a huge population of fortune-seekers, many of whom did get very wealthy, Native Americans were worked to death in the horrible conditions of the mine and got no benefit from the precious silver they dug out. (see page 443)
10. How did the discovery of the vast silver mines in South America affect Spain's position in Europe?
a. It allowed Spain to pursue political and military goals far beyond what they could afford previously.
b. It vastly enriched all the citizens of Spain.
c. It did nothing for Spain because most of the silver went straight to China.
d. Most of the silver was stolen by pirates as it was shipped across the Caribbean and Atlantic.
The answer is a. Though the wealth did not help the Spanish economy overall, it was used by the Spanish government to finance an enormous military and colonial administration that would not have been possible without the silver. (see page 443)
11. How did the discovery of silver mines in Japan impact Japanese fortunes?
a. The ruling shogunate isolated Japan even more, fearing that greedy Europeans would conquer and enslave Japanese for their silver as in the Andes.
b. The ruling shogunate used the silver to buy a large military and luxury goods for the elites, but did nothing to help commoners.
c. The ruling shogunate wisely invested wealth from the mines to create a sustainable market-based economy and ecology.
d. The ruling shogunate disintegrated into civil war and anarchy as factions fought over control of the silver mines.
The answer is c. The wealth from the silver mines in Japan was used to unify the country, help protect the environment, and build up capital in the growing merchant class, all of which laid the basis for Japan's remarkable success as an industrial world power in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. (see page 444)
12. In what way did the Chinese response to the global silver economy differ from the Japanese response?
a. The Chinese economy became diversified; the Japanese did not.
b. Chinese merchants began exporting goods to other lands; Japan did not.
c. Inflation destroyed the Chinese economy; but aided the Japanese economy.
d. Economic changes resulted in ecological devastation in China, but not in Japan.
The answer is d. Both economies became more modern and diverse, and both expanded as a result of the silver boom, but the Japanese government had a conservation policy that protected forests from being chopped down for profitable farmland; China did not have such a policy. (see page 444)
13. All the following powers got the vast majority of their furs from North America, EXCEPT
The answer is c. Russia had its own supply of fur-bearing animals in the forests of Siberia, and for the most part, did not need to hunt or trap in North America. (see page 448)
14. What was the main way through which Europeans acquired furs in North America?
a. Trade with Native Americans
b. Hunting by European fur traders
d. Raising furry animals
The answer is a. Though some Europeans, especially the French, made a living hunting and trapping fur-bearing animals in the wilderness of North America, Native Americans were far more skilled at the task and it was far easier for Europeans to trade manufactured goods and other items with them in exchange for the furs. (see page 445)
15. In what way did the fur trade benefit Native Americans?
a. It helped their population grow.
b. It protected them against enslavement and genocide, initially.
c. It improved their diet.
d. It unified disparate tribes.
The answer is b. Because their trapping and hunting skills were so superior to Europeans, Europeans were forced to trade with them, and could not afford to simply enslave or outright exterminate them, as happened in the Caribbean and South America. (see page 445)
16. In what way did the fur trade harm Native Americans?
a. It reduced their meat supply.
b. It led to overpopulation.
c. Because of contact with Europeans, it eventually led to warfare, disease, and alcoholism.
d. It forced large populations of Native Americans to move far away.
The answer is c. Contact with Europeans brought devastating diseases that wiped out large amounts of Native Americans; the guns introduced by Europeans fuelled intertribal warfare between surviving Native Americans; Native Americans were forced to take sides in the wars between the British and French in North America; and Native Americans became quickly addicted to the whiskey brought by Europeans. (see page 447)
17. How did African slavery in the New World differ fundamentally from past instances of slavery in world history?
a. Black Africans had never before been enslaved.
b. Slavery previously was only practiced in the Middle East.
c. Slavery in the Americas was clearly associated with race and with plantation economies.
d. Slaves were usually not transported long distances.
The answer is c. Black African slavery in the New World was unique in that for the first time, slaves were treated as purely dehumanized property and put to work on large-scale plantations, with little or no hope for freedom or advancement for themselves or their children, whereas in the past most slaves worked in households or as soldiers and could earn their freedom through becoming a member of the family, proving themselves in battle, or through other ways. (see page 450)
18. Which of the following is NOT a reason that black Africans were ideal as slaves from the European point of view?
a. Their immune systems could handle both tropical and European diseases.
b. They came from a largely agricultural society.
c. West Africa was relatively close to Brazil and the Caribbean by sea.
d. Europeans could easily venture into the African interior to capture them.
The answer is d. Europeans' immune systems could not handle the tropical diseases of the inland forests and jungles, and so they had to stay on the coasts and purchase slaves already captured by other Africans inland. (see page 451)
19. What was the social status of those Africans who were captured by other Africans to be sold to Europeans?
a. They were society's elites.
b. They were the outcasts and foreigners, often prisoners of war, within local villages.
c. They were unruly local young men.
d. It varied; people were simply picked at random to be slaves.
The answer is b. Local villages and chiefdoms generally sold those who were most marginal in their societies, such as criminals, prisoners of war, debtors, foreigners, and others not their own mainstream population. (see page 455)
20. What best describes the long-term impact of the slave trade on West Africa?
a. Increasing political unification
b. Technological breakthroughs
c. Economic stagnation and political disruption
d. Introduction of new crops from the Americas
The answer is c. The huge population loss and internecine war created by the slave trade meant fewer people to farm or do productive work in Africa, and no political unity was possible, nor was an investment made in the local economy, as long as quicker profits could be made by capturing other Africans and selling them to Europeans. (see page 456)
1. The immediate motivation for the Portuguese policy of expansion around Africa and into Asia was _______.
The answer is c. (see page 434)
2. ______ was the major gateway for precious goods from Asia into Europe until the Portuguese exploration.
a. Muslim Egypt
b. Christian Russia
c. Native America
d. Sub-Saharan Africa
e. Eastern Europe
The answer is a. (see page 435)
3. The Portuguese Empire in the Indian Ocean was not a territorial empire, but rather a ______ empire.
d. trading post
The answer is d. (see page 437)
4. Spain's first foothold in the Asian commercial network was ______.
b. Hong Kong
c. the Philippines
The answer is c. (see page 437)
5. In 1603, the Spanish killed nearly the entire ______ population of the Philippines.
The answer is e. (see page 439)
6. Unlike the Portuguese, the British and the Dutch used ______ to expand their power in the Indian Ocean Basin.
a. new naval fleets
b. missionary groups
c. native armies
d. private trading companies
e. international treaties
The answer is d. (see page 439)
7. The Dutch and British East India Companies gained control over ________________, respectively.
a. China and Japan
b. Ethiopia and Micronesia
c. Indonesia and India
d. Australia and Persia
e. Singapore and Malaysia
The answer is c. (see page 439)
8. When European traders and missionaries first arrived in Japan, Japanese society and government were ______.
d. technologically advanced
The answer is c. (see page 441)
9. The currency of global exchange between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries was ______.
The answer is e. (see page 442)
10. The Spanish colony of ______ was the crucial link in the creation of a new Asian-American trading network.
b. the Philippines
The answer is b. (see page 442)
11. Most of the silver in the world ended up in _____, where it stayed "as if at its natural center."
The answer is a. (see page 443)
12. Unusually cold temperatures and growing populations drove up demand for ______ in the sixteenth century.
c. animal furs
d. tropical islands
The answer is c. (see page 445)
13. The "mourning wars" were attempts by Native American tribes to capture new ______, to restore what they had lost to European diseases.
d. water supplies
The answer is b. (see page 447)
14. The spread of African peoples throughout the Americas as a result of the slave trade was called the ______.
a. African diaspora
b. African passage
c. African tragedy
d. African disappearance
e. African renaissance
The answer is a. (see page 449)
15. The crop most responsible for the initiation of African slavery in the New World was ______.
The answer is d. (see page 451)
16. Some historians argue that racist notions about the inferiority of black-skinned Africans were transmitted to Christian Europeans from ______.
a. Hindu Indians
b. nonblack Muslims
d. other black-skinned Africans
e. Native Americans
The answer is b. (see page 452)
17. From the initial capture of African slaves to the sale of African slaves to slave ships on the coast, almost the entire process was in ______ hands.
The answer is e. (see page 452)
18. The Kingdom of ______ disintegrated due to the European slave trade.
The answer is a. (see page 453)
19. 80% of enslaved Africans ended up in ______.
a. North America
c. Brazil and the Caribbean
d. the Andes
The answer is c. (see page 455)
20. The Kingdom of ______ was an example of a West African state that mostly resisted involvement in the African slave trade.
The answer is c. (see page 456)
1. How did Luther's belief in the Bible as the source of religious truth threaten the power of the church?
a. The church could not print enough Bibles for every Christian.
b. It freed individuals to disagree with the Church's interpretation of Christianity.
c. It placed a person's salvation in their own hands.
d. It eliminated the idea of faith.
The answer is b. Luther believed people should read the Bible themselves, and did not need priests or other church clergy to help them get to heaven. (see page 463)
2. Why did certain princes and kings embrace Luther's ideas?
a. They believed all people to be equal.
b. They objected to the luxurious lifestyle of the Pope.
c. They had long resented the Pope's political power over them.
d. They wanted to improve the living conditions of their peasants.
The answer is c. Breaking away from the Catholic Church also meant gaining political and economic control over their own territories for many central and northern European rulers. (see pages 463 through 464)
3. Which of the following was NOT a result of the Thirty Years' War?
a. Catholic forces regained control over most of Europe.
b. About 15-30 percent of the German population was exterminated.
c. Separate states gained the power to choose Protestantism or Catholicism.
d. Europe was permanently divided between Protestant and Catholic lands.
The answer is a. Catholic forces regained some territory, but many states became permanently Protestant as a result of the Treaty of Westphalia (1648), which finally ended the Thirty Years' War. (see page 465)
4. Which of the following was a major difference between Protestants and Catholics in European colonies?
a. Catholics built churches; Protestants did not.
b. Catholics sought to convert native peoples; Protestants did not.
c. Catholics did not condone slavery; Protestants did.
d. Catholics were focused on getting rich; Protestants were not.
The answer is b. Catholic empires such as the Portuguese, Spanish, and French sent missionaries to convert as many native peoples as possible; in Protestant colonies, however, such as those belonging to Britain or Holland, colonists focused on their own religious communities. (see page 467)
5. In what way did most Native Americans in the Andes and Mexico respond to the imposition of Christianity on their culture?
a. They slaughtered the missionaries.
b. They refused to pray or participate in services.
c. The incorporated their older religious beliefs into Christian doctrine and practice.
d. They embraced Christianity wholeheartedly.
The answer is c. Though some Native Americans in the Andes and in Mexico urged other Native Americans to remain loyal to their old beliefs, most of them fused their old religious beliefs with Christianity, for example by replacing traditional gods with Christian saints, but performing largely the same rituals as earlier. (see page 468)
6. Which of the following best describes the behavior of the Jesuits in China?
a. They attempted to wipe out all non-Christian religious temples, idols, and priests.
b. They kept to themselves, observing at a distance.
c. They began preaching the gospel to the poor and downtrodden.
d. They learned about and adopted much Chinese culture and learning.
The answer is d. Jesuit missionaries, who were highly educated, were of interest to Confucian Chinese leaders, who also were highly educated, and the Jesuits found learning about the Chinese to be a more useful strategy of getting a foothold in China than outright conquest. (see page 470)
7. All of the following explain why Christianity did not catch on in China EXCEPT:
a. Christianity offered little not already offered by Chinese religions.
b. Conversion to Christianity was all-or-nothing, and ruled out much Chinese culture.
c. Jesuits were viewed as superstitious and uneducated by Chinese intellectuals.
d. Western military gains in Asia made many Chinese suspicious of missionaries.
The answer is c. The Jesuits and other missionaries continued working for the Qing after their take over, which did not help their standing in the eyes of many Chinese, who saw the Qing as being foreign and uncultured, just like Christians. (see page 471)
8. How did Europeans commonly react to African slaves' syncretic religions, such as Santeria and Vodou?
a. They encouraged these religions.
b. They turned a blind eye to these religions.
c. They often participated in these religions.
d. They considered these religions to be satanic witchcraft and tried to suppress them
The answer is d. Syncretic, or blended, religions formed from elements of Christianity and elements of West African religious practices, such as animal sacrifice and ritual dancing, appeared to Europeans as sorcery or even the Devil's work, and they strictly forbade their slaves to participate in them. (see pages 472 through 473)
9. How were individual merchants, wandering holy men, or scholars able to spread Islam further throughout Africa, Asia, and even the Americas during the Early Modern Era?
a. They were not threatening to local rulers, and were often quite useful.
b. They were advance scouts for Islamic armies preparing invasion.
c. They were not able to spread Islam on their own.
d. They offered to convert local people if those people gave up their old religions.
The answer is a. These people set up informal schools, taught locals Arabic, and offered links to the prosperous and powerful Islamic world. (see page 473)
10. Which of the following best describes the state created by Abd al-Wahhab and Muhammad Ibn Saud in the 1740s?
a. A state based on a pure and strict interpretation of Islam
b. A state dedicated to the creation of material wealth
c. A state open to learning and understanding the world's other religions
d. A state defined by corruption, greed, and non-Islamic values
The answer is a. Wahhabism, as Wahhab's movement became known, and the Saudi family, descended from Ibn Saud, sought to create a state that would exactly mirror the Koran and its law, known as Sharia. (see page 474)
11. How was Wang Yangmin's Confucianism MOST similar to Martin Luther's Christianity?
a. They lived during the same time period.
b. They both sought to reform their respective religions.
c. They both believed that an elite class should rule society.
d. They both saw truth as innately accessible for every human being.
The answer is d. Wang Yangmin believed that one need not always listen to the more educated or to society's elites, but rather that truth and morality could be found through introspection, similar to Luther's idea of salvation through "faith alone." (see page 475)
12. How might the Hindu practice of bhakti have threatened the social order in India?
a. It sought to revive Hinduism.
b. It set aside caste distinctions.
c. It encouraged foot-washing.
d. It sought to combine Islam and Hinduism.
The answer is b. Bhakti involved direct spiritual union with Hindu deities, making caste distinctions less important than in traditional Hinduism. (see page 476)
13. Why did Sikhism evolve from a peaceful religion into a militant community?
a. Violence was more effective at gaining converts.
b. Punjab, where Sikhism was founded, was torn apart by a civil war.
c. The British military trained them to be militants.
d. They had to defend themselves against both Mughal and Hindu hostility.
The answer is d. Though the Sikhs intended to blend Hinduism and Islam into a religion of peace, they found themselves under attack from both Hindus and Muslims for their attempt to build a new religion, and eventually had to learn to fight to survive. (see pages 476 through 477)
14. Why was the legal concept of a "corporation" so important to the development of the European Scientific Revolution?
a. It allowed universities to have a measure of educational and intellectual freedom from the church and state.
b. It allowed for large-scale businesses to develop that could fund research.
c. It allowed universities to make profits.
d. It allowed churches and monasteries to make profits off their inventions.
The answer is a. The legal concept of a "corporation" was unique to Europe and allowed specific institutions, especially universities, to retain the rights of an individual person, meaning they could pursue their own research and teaching without interference from the state. (see page 478)
15. What role did science play in the educational systems of Islamic and Chinese societies?
a. It was central.
b. It was marginal.
c. There was great curiosity, but no texts in their languages.
d. These societies had never had interest in science.
The answer is b. Though some in the Islamic and Chinese worlds were interested in scientific questions, and though both societies earlier led humanity in scientific discovery, such knowledge was no longer seen as relevant to either Islam or Confucianism. (see pages 478 through 479)
16. What was the radical implication of Newton's law of mutual gravitation?
a. It implied that God Himself had a gravitational weight.
b. It implied that space flight was impossible.
c. It implied that the heavens and earth obeyed the same laws.
d. It implied that all planets would eventually crash into their sun.
The answer is c. An apple falls to the ground under the same force and in the exact same way as a planet orbits the sun, which means that there is nothing fundamentally different about objects in the "heavens." (see page 481)
17. How does the Enlightenment compare to the Scientific Revolution?
a. The Enlightenment applied the idea of natural laws to human affairs.
b. The Enlightenment refers to people's growing awareness of the Scientific Revolution.
c. The Enlightenment inspired the Scientific Revolution.
d. The Enlightenment was more mystical than the Scientific Revolution.
The answer is a. The main figures of the Enlightenment believed that certain exact laws governing human society could be discovered, as had happened with areas of natural science, and then a more perfect form of human society could be constructed based on these laws. (see page 482)
18. How did many Enlightenment thinkers, such as Voltaire, think about established religion?
a. They were devoutly religious.
b. They believed they could replace Christianity with an even better religion.
c. They saw most religions as superstitious and intolerant.
d. Publicly they supported the Church, but privately they mocked it.
The answer is c. Like Voltaire, many Enlightenment thinkers saw religion as based on irrational belief, and thus there could be no reasonable dialogue between religions, which often led to senseless conflict. (see page 483)
19. Which of the following best describes the Enlightenment-era philosophy of Rousseau?
a. Children should be educated in nature, not in society.
b. Children should be protected from nature, and kept inside society.
c. Nature imbued people with traits of greed and envy.
d. Children should begin reading books as early as possible.
The answer is a. Rousseau saw society as having a corrupting influence, and thought children would be better off educated in nature, not in a classroom. (see page 484)
20. Which of the following best describes the response of China, Japan, and the Ottoman Empire to the Scientific Revolution?
a. They refused to believe any Europeans could make important discoveries.
b. They recognized the greatness of European discoveries, but could not understand how to teach them.
c. They adopted some of the more practical aspects, such as map-making and anatomy, but little beyond that.
d. They embraced European science wholeheartedly.
The answer is c. In China, Japan, and the Ottoman Empires, small groups of elite scholars knew of the advances in European science, but for the most part they did not adopt the major philosophical and social shifts implied by these discoveries and which were at work in Europe. (see pages 485 through 486)
1. Luther's new understanding of salvation held that ______ alone was important.
b. good works
The answer is a. (see page 463)
2. The ideas of the Reformation spread quickly thanks to the invention of ______.
b. reading glasses
c. the printing press
d. the steam engine
e. the kerosene lamp
The answer is c. (see page 465)
3. The Reformation caused serious violence in France between the Catholic majority and the protestant ______ minority.
The answer is e. (see page 465)
4. The ______ War was the devastating culmination of Protestant-Catholic violence.
b. Hundred Years'
c. Seven Years'
d. Thirty Years'
The answer is d. (see page 465)
5. In response to the Protestant breakaway, the Catholic Church reaffirmed and reformed its doctrine and practice through the ______.
b. Peace of Westphalia
d. Edict of Nantes
e. Treaty of Tordesillas
The answer is c. (see page 465)
6. The Spanish and Portuguese saw their expansion of Christianity to their colonies as part of a tradition of ______.
The answer is b. (see page 467)
7. ______ were deities who, many Andean peoples believed, would fight back against Christianity and Spanish rule.
The answer is c. (see page 469)
8. Jesuit missionaries in China tried point out parallels between Christianity and ______.
The answer is a. (see page 470)
9. ______ means the blending of two or more religions, usually the blending of a dominant religion such as Christianity and native religions involving magic, spirits, sacrifices, and other rituals.
The answer is c. (see page 473)
10. Abd al-Wahhab called for the elimination of all ______ in Islam.
c. the use of the Koran
e. tribal leaders
The answer is d. (see page 474)
11. Confucianism enriched by insights from Buddhism and Daoism was called ______.
The answer is c. (see page 474)
12. Kaozheng was a Chinese movement that was intended to seek truth from ______.
The answer is a. (see page 475)
13. Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism, said, "There is no Hindu; there is no Muslim; only ______."
The answer is c. (see page 476)
14. The most important institutions in creating Europe's Scientific Revolution were its ______.
c. royal courts
The answer is e. (see page 478)
15. Copernicus's "discovery" of a sun-centered universe almost certainly drew from discoveries made 200-300 years earlier in ______.
The answer is d. (see page 479)
16. In the view of Johannes Kepler, the universe was not so much like a "divine animated being" but more like a ______.
a. growing tree
b. human being
d. flowing river
The answer is e. (see page 481)
17. The Scottish professor Adam Smith formulated a set of laws which govern the operation of ______.
a. the oceans
b. the economy
c. the mind
e. the weather
The answer is b. (see page 482)
18. Voltaire, like many other Enlightenment thinkers, believed in ______.
The answer is c. (see page 483)
19. The central theme of the Enlightenment was the idea of ______.
The answer is e. (see page 483)
20. Charles Darwin, Karl Marx, and Sigmund Freud, all inspired by the Enlightenment, cast doubt upon the core Enlightenment idea of human ______.
The answer is c. (see pages 484 through 485)
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