140 terms

Public Speaking: An Audience Centered Approach Ch. 10-12, 14-16

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Differences between oral and written language styles
Oral:
1) more personal
2) less formal
3) more repetitive

Written:
1) less pronoun use
2) able to look back, less repetitive
Ways to use words effectively
1) use specific, concrete words
2) use simple words
3) use words correctly
4) use words concisely
denotation
its literal meaning, the definition you find in a dictionary
connotation
meaning we associate with the word, not normally in the dictionary
ladder of abstraction
continuum model of abstract and concrete words for a concept, idea, or thing
concise
to the point
cliché
an overused expression
Ways to adapt language style to diverse learners
1) use language that your audience can understand
2) use respectful language
3) use unbiased language
ethnic vernacular
a variety of English that includes words and phrases used by a specific ethnic group
regionalism
words or phrases used uniquely by speakers in one part of a country
jargon
the specialized language of a profession
Standard American English
the English taught by schools and used in the media, business, and government in the United States
Types of memorable word structures
1) word structures with figurative imagery
2) word structures with drama
3) word structures with cadence
ear appeal
phrases that people remember, even if they want to forget them
Word structures with figurative imagery
1) metaphor
2) simile
3) personification
metaphor
an implied comparison between two things or concepts
simile
a comparison that uses like or as
personification
attribution of human qualities to inanimate things
Word structures with drama
1) short sentence
2) omission
3) inversion
4) suspension
short sentence
emphasizes an important idea by stating it in a few well-chosen words
omission
leaving out a word or phrase that the listener expects to hear
inversion
reversal of the normal word order of a phrase or sentence
suspension
withholding a key word or phrase until the end of a sentence
Word structures with cadence
1) repetition
2) parallelism
3) antithesis
4) alliteration
repetition
use of a key word or phrase more than once for emphasis
parallelism
use of the same grammatical pattern for two or more phrases
antithesis
opposition, such as that used in a parallel two-part sentence in which the second part contrasts in meaning with the first
alliteration
repetition of a consonant sound several times
figure of speech
language that deviates from the ordinary, expected meaning of words to make a description or comparison unique, vivid, and memorable
crisis rhetoric
language used by speakers during momentous or overwhelming times
cadence
the rhythm of language
Reasons why delivery is important to a public speaker
1) Listeners expect effective delivery
2) Listeners make emotional connections with you through delivery
3) Listeners believe what they see
nonverbal communication
communication other than written or spoken language that creates meaning
nonverbal expectancy theory
suggests that if listeners' expectations about how communication should be expressed are violated, listeners will feel less favorable towards the communicator of the message
emotional contagion theory
a theory suggesting that people tend to "catch" the emotions of others
Methods of delivery
1) Manuscript speaking
2) Memorized speaking
3) Impromptu speaking
4) Extemporaneous speaking
manuscript speaking
reading a speech from written text
memorized speaking
delivering a speech word for word from memory without using notes
impromptu speaking
delivering a speech without advance preparation
extemporaneous speaking
speaking from a written or memorized speech outline without having memorized the exact wording of the speech
Characteristics of effective delivery
1) eye contact
2) gestures
3) movement
4) posture
5) facial expression
6) vocal delivery
7) personal appearance
immediacy
the degree of perceived physical or psychological closeness between people
immediacy of behaviors
behaviors such as making eye-contact, making appropriate gestures, and adjusting physical distance that enhance the quality of relationship between speaker and listeners
volume
the softness or loudness of a speaker's voice
articulation
the production of clear and distinct speech sounds
dialect
a consistent style of pronouncing words that is common to an ethnic group or geographic region
pronunciation
the use of sounds to form words clearly and accurately
pitch
how high or or how low the voice sounds
inflection
the variation in the pitch of voice
lavaliere microphone
a microphone that can be clipped to an article of clothing or worn on a cord around your neck
boom microphone
a microphone that is suspended from a bar and moved to follow the speaker; often used in movies and TV
stationary microphone
a microphone attached to a lectern, sitting on a desk, or standing on the floor
Types of presentation aids
1) three-dimensional
2) two-dimensional
3) computer-generated presentation aids
4) audiovisual aids
presentation aid
anything tangible (drawings, charts, graphs, video images, photographs, sounds) that helps communicate an idea to an audience
model
a small object that represents a larger object
graph
a pictorial representation of statistical data
bar graph
a graph in which bars of various lengths represent information
pie graph
a circular graph divided into wedges that show each part's percentage of the whole
line graph
a graph that uses lines or curves to show relationships between two or more variables
picture graph
a graph that uses images or pictures to symbolize data
chart
a display that summarizes information by using words, numbers, or images
clip art
images or pictures stored in a computer file or in printed form that can be used in a presentation aid
fonts
particular systems of typefaces
Goals of persuasive messages
1) change or reinforce attitudes
2) change or reinforce beliefs
3) change or reinforce audience values
4) change or reinforce behaviors
persuasion
the process of changing or reinforcing a listener's attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior
attitude
a learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably toward something; likes and dislikes
belief
a way we structure reality to accept something as true or false
value
an enduring concept of good and bad, right and wrong
Classic theory of how persuasion occurs
Aristotle's traditional approach: ethos, logos, pathos
ethos
appeal to speaker character and credibility
logos
use of logic and reasoning to persuade
pathos
appeal to human emotion to persuade
motivation
the internal force that drives people to achieve their goals
Contemporary theory of how persuasion occurs
Elaboration likelihood model
Elaboration Likelihood Model
theory that people can be persuaded by logic, evidence, and reasoning, or through a more peripheral route that may depend on the credibility of the speaker, the sheer number of arguments presented, or emotional appeals
Ways to motivate listeners to respond to a persuasive message
1) Cognitive dissonance theory
2) Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
3) use positive motivation
4) use negative motivation
cognitive dissonance
the sense of mental discomfort that prompts a person to change when new information conflicts with previously organized thought patterns
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
people are motivated by unmet needs; most basic needs are physiological, followed by safety needs, social needs self-esteem needs, and finally, self-actualization needs
self-actualization need
the need to achieve one's highest potential
benefit
a good result or something that creates a positive emotional response in the listener
feature
a characteristic of something that you are describing
social judgement theory
a theory that categorizes the listener responses to a persuasive message according to the latitude of acceptance, the latitude of rejection, or the latitude of non-commitment
proposition
a statement that summarizes the ideas with which a speaker wants an audience to agree
proposition of fact
a proposition that focuses on whether something is true or false or whether it did or did not happen
proposition of value
a statement that either asserts that something is better than something else or presumes what is right and wrong or good and bad
proposition of policy
a statement that advocates a change in policy or prodecures
competent
being informed, skilled, or knowledgeable about one's subject
trustworthiness
an aspect of a speaker's credibility that reflects whether the speaker is perceived as being believable and honest
dynamism
an aspect of speaker's credibility that reflects whether the speaker is perceived as energetic
charisma
characteristics of talented, charming, attractive speaker
initial credibility
the impression of a speaker's credibility that listeners have before the speaker starts a speech
derived
the perception of a speaker's credibility that is formed during a speech
terminal credibility
the final impression listeners have of a speaker's credibility after a speech concludes
inductive reasoning
reasoning that uses specific instances or examples to reach a general, probable conclusion
generalization
an all-encompassing statement
reasoning by analogy
compares one thing, person, or process with another to predict how something will perform and respond
reasoning by sign
using the existence of one or more events to reach a specific conclusion that another event has occurred or will occur
deductive reasoning
reasoning that moves from a general statement of principle to a specific, certain conclusion
syllogism
a three-part argument that consists of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion
major premise
a general statement that is the first element of a syllogism
minor premise
a specific statement about an example that is linked to the major premise; the second element of a syllogism
conclusion
the logical outcome of a deductive argument, which stems from the major premise and minor premise
causal reasoning
reasoning in which the relationship between two or more events leads you to conclude that one or more of the events caused the others
fact
something that had been directly observed to be true or can be proven to be true by verifiable evidence
inference
a conclusion based on available evidence or partial information
examples
illustrations used to dramatize or clarify a fact
statistics
numbers used to summarize several facts or samples
reluctant testimony
a statement by someone who has reversed his or her position on a given issue
fallacy
false reasoning that occurs when someone attempts to persuade without adequate evidence or with arguments that are irrelevant or inappropriate
causal fallacy
a faulty cause-and-effect connection between two things or events
post hoc, ergo propter hoc
Latin term for causal fallacy; translates as "after this, therefore, because of this"
bandwagon fallacy
reasoning that suggests that because everyone else believes something or is doing something, then it must be valid or correct
either/or fallacy
the oversimplification of an issue into a choice between only two outcomes or possibilities
hasty generalization
a conclusion reached without adequate evidence
ad hominem
an attack on irrelevant personal characteristics of the person who is proposing the idea, rather than on the idea itself
red herring
irrelevant facts or information used to distract someone from issue under discussion
appeal to misplaced authority
use of the testimony of an expert in a given field to endorse an idea or product for which the expert does not have the appropriate credentials or expertise
non sequitur
Latin for "it does not follow"; an idea or conclusion that does not logically relate to or follow from the previous idea or conclusion
emotional response theory
human emotional responses can be classified as eliciting feelings of pleasure, arousal, or dominance
myth
a shared belief based on underlying values, cultural heritage, and faith of a group of people
demagogue
a speaker who gains control over others by using unethical emotional pleas and appeals to listeners' prejudices
problem-solution organization
present the problem, then present the solution
refutation
anticipate your listeners' key objectives to your proposal and then address them
cause and effect organization
first present the cause of the problem; then note how the problem affects the listeners, or identify a known effect; then document what causes the effect
motivated sequence
a five-step pattern of organizing a speech; its steps are attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action
symposium
a public discussion in which a series of short speeches is presented to an audience
forum
a question-and-answer session that usually follows a public discussion or symposium
panel discussion
a group discussion designed to inform an audience about issues or a problem or to make recommendations
public-relations speeches
speeches designed to inform the public; to strengthen alliances with them, and in some cases to recommend policy
kairos
the circumstances surrounding the speech or the occasion for a speech
ceremonial (epideictic) speech
a speech delivered on a special occasion for celebration, thanksgiving, praise, or mourning
speech of introduction
a speech that provides information about another speaker
toast
a brief salute to a momentous occasion
award presentation
a speech that accompanies the conferring of an award
nomination speech
a speech that officially names someone as a candidate for an office or position
acceptance speech
a speech of thanks for an award, nomination, or other honor
keynote address
a speech that sets the theme and tone for a meeting or conference
commencement address
a speech delivered at a graduation or commencement ceremony
commemorative address
a speech delivered during ceremonies held in memory of some past event and/or the person or persons involved
eulogy
a speech of tribute delivered when someone has died