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Terms in this set (78)
able to identify individual sounds in a word.
oral language, words, onsets, rimes (no word letters).
smallest unit of sound.
instruction focusing on teaching content. typically all students are second language learners from same L1 background.
study of speech sounds.
study of the "meanings" of words, phrases and sentences.
Dual Lang. 1-Way
only one language spoken among students (all Spanish speakers).
Dual Language Program
a program that teaches two languages where half the class speaks English and the other half of the class speaks Spanish.
two vowels next to each other.
the grammar rules or structure of a sentence.
individual letters that represent phonemes.
study of sounds that exist in a language.
the study of the smallest structural units of a language that impart meaning (e.g, the plural s ending)
smallest meaningful of language.
using/mixing two languages "I want a motorcycle verde".
combination of two letters representing one sound (phonemes) .. sh, ch, th, ng, ph.
Receptive Language Skills
listening and reading.
Productive Language Skill
listening and writing.
reading and writing skills.
ending of words.
adapting ones speech to fit certain social situations.
compilation of words made by Edward William Dolch in 1936. Basic sight words that native speakers of English should know by grade 2; 220 frequently used words.
the ability to write and receive written text for communication.
beginning of words.
the acquisition of a second language involves conscious knowledge about correctness of a language.
language learned by imitations and development through a system of habits for every action there is a reaction, repetition and reinforcement, stimulus and response.
the implied or associative meaning of a word.
aspect of language the teacher is explicitly trying to develop that include: listening, speaking reading and writing.
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
distance between the kind of language learners are able to produce on their own and the language they can construct with support of others through scaffolding.
the use of language in a social setting. (playground and professional talk).
the vocabulary of a language.
explains second language learning from the multiple perspectives of the learner, the learners first language group and the target language group.
Elementary and Secondary Education Act
Federal education policy that emerged from the civil rights movement and the war on proverty.
groups of phonemes that make up sound .. bl, cl, wr, tr, sm.
a program where students leave their regular mainstream classes for special language instruction.
Stephen Krashen theory that viewed second language acquisition rather than learning as the basis of all true language development. (all students needs to acquire a second language)
Universal Grammar Theory
a second language acquisition theory based on Chomsky's theory of language universals and marked features.
Affective Factors (Filter Hypothesis)
also known as emotional factors. these learners characteristics include students feelings about language learning and toward their particular target language and culture.
input alone is insufficient to develop high-level language competence emphasizes pushed or forced output so that learners are encouraged to produce increasingly complex and native like language.
Acquisition Learning Hypothesis
difference between learning a language and acquiring a language. language acquisition is a subconscious process language learning, in contrast, is a conscious process. Krashen argues that because of the complexity of language, the vast majority is acquired, rather than consciously learn.
language features may be acquired by the learner earlier or later than others depending on where they appear in the input process
theory of second language acquisition which states that the development of language proficiency is promoted by face to face interaction and communication.
designed for recent immigrants at the secondary school level who have little or no English proficiency & limited or no formal education in their native countries.
Developmental Bilingual Education (DBE)
education for ELLS, who receive 90% content area instruction in their home language and 10% of content area instruction through sheltered instruction. Home language instruction decreases as student move up in grade level.
similarity, language learners are often unable to display many of the personality traits that are important to their self-image.
a term referring o children's growth of understanding of the world as they continue to learn and hypothesize about the world around them.
Heritage Language Program
language development program that is designed to address the needs of heritage language learners/speakers.
emphasize the role of social and cultural factors in second language acquisition.
words that sound the same but have different meaning.
words that have two or more different meanings.
words that are included in the meaning of another word (dog:animal) (flower:plant).
refers to how and what learners think about the learning.
refers to the second or foreign language of instruction.
the unconscious development of language through exposure to the target language.
state of anxiety, tension and/or disorientation resulting from being exposed to or living within a different culture.
learners cannot acquire specific language features in the input unless they notice them.
Input Processing Model
learners interact with other speakers, receive modified input with the opportunity to produce comprehensible output to build development
motivation refers to learners pragmatic reasons for learning a language.
Second Language Acquisition
academic field of second language acquisition seeks to understand how humans learn new language.
the process of adjusting to and becoming part of a new cultural group.
refers to the relative dominance (economic, social and political power) of the learning and target groups.
(second language acquisition) - favorable; 1.comprehensible input 2.affective filter 3.acquisition vs. learning 4.monitor hypothesis 5.natural order hypothesis
(audio-lingual method) - not favorable; 1.respond stimuli;acquire by understanding message 2.Piaget/Vygotsky 3. socio-constructivist 4. ZPD with scaffolding.
(born with it) - little favorable;
understands fundamental language concepts (Domain 1)
understands the process of first language and second language (Domain 1)
understands ESL teaching methods and uses to implement effective, developmentally appropriate instruction (Domain 2)
understands how to promote students communicative language development in English (Domain 2)
understands how to promote students literacy development in English (Domain 2)
understands how to promote students content area learning academic language and achievement across the curriculum (Domain 2)
understand formal and informal assessment (Domain 2)
understand the foundation of ESL education and types of ESL programs (Domain 3)
understands factors that affect ESL students learning and implements strategies for creating effective multi-cultural learning (Domain 3)
the ESL teacher knows how to serve as an advocate for ESL students and facilitate family and community involvement (Domain 3)
Natural Order Hypothesis
acquirers internalize grammatical structures in a predictable order
learners who read in their first language (L1) have a database that can be used to transfer meaning into the second language (L2)
Continuum of Learning Theory
Silent period/Preprodution: student dont say much, early production: student uses one or two word phrases, Speech Emergence: student use short sentences, Intermediate: student uses complex statements, Advanced: student acquire substantial vocabulary
words that are spelled alike but have different sounds and meanings (bow and arrow vs. bow of a ship) .
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