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Sociology Chapter 17
Terms in this set (70)
Confucius, whose sayings are collected in the_____, taught that people must learn the importance of order in human relationships and must follow a strict code of moral conduct, including respect for others, benevolence, and reciprocity.
theorists assert that in attempting to provide meaning and purpose in life while at the same time promoting the status quo, religion is used by the dominant classes to impose their own control over society and its resources.
Central to Hindu teachings is the belief that individual souls enter the world and roam the universe until they break free into the limitless atmosphere of illumination by discovering their own_____ (duties or responsibilities).
The Christian ritual of communion not only commemorates a historical event but also allows followers to participate in the unity of themselves with other believers. From a functionalist perspective, this ritual serves the function of:
promoting social cohesion and a sense of belonging.
A traditional religious doctrine that is conservative, typically opposed to modernity, and rejects "worldly pleasure" in favor of otherworldly spirituality is known as:
According to Muhammad, followers must adhere to the five Pillars of Islam. Which of the following is NOT one of these?
Understanding that the Greater Jihad is the internal struggle against sin
whose followers are known as Muslims, is based on the teachings of its founder, Muhammad, who was born in Mecca.
Because the term cult has assumed a negative and sometimes offensive meaning because of the beliefs and actions of a few highly publicized cults, some researchers now use the term:
new religious movement.
According to feminist theorists, ___________ consistently privilege(s) men over women.
religious symbolism and language
Which of the following religions are monotheistic?
Central to Hindu teachings is the belief that individual souls enter the world and roam the universe until they break free into the limitless atmosphere of illumination known as:
has been used to explain mystifying events of nature, such as sunrises and thunderstorms, and the ways in which some objects may bring a person good or bad luck.
In the educational debate over creationism and evolutionism, advocates of evolutionism argue that their beliefs are based on __________ facts.
In Hinduism, the soul's acquisition of each new body is tied to the law of_____ (deed or act), which is a doctrine of the moral law of cause and effect.
Confucius established the foundation for __________ and potential conflict when he set forth his Five Constant Relationships.
Both religion and spirituality require that persons engage in __________, which is a confident belief that cannot be proven or disproven but is accepted as true.
is believed to be one of the world's oldest current religions, having originated along the banks of the Indus River in_____between 3,500 and 4,500 years ago.
Overcoming desire can be accomplished through the Eightfold Path to Nirvana. This path is a way of living that avoids extremes of indulgence and suggests that a person can live in the world but not be worldly. This principle is part of the Four Noble Truths practiced in __________ Buddhism.
The Islamic faith is based on the_____—the holy book of the Muslims, as revealed to the Prophet Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel at the command of God. It reveals that it is up to God, not humans, to determine which individuals are deserving of punishment and what kinds of violence are justified under various conditions.
is the process by which religious beliefs, practices, and institutions lose their significance in sectors of society and non-religious values, principles, and institutions take their place.
(NOT Religious reductionism)
Some sociologists believe that a more accurate metaphor for religion in the global village is that of the_____, in which religious institutions and traditions compete for adherents, and worshippers shop for a religion in much the same way that consumers decide what goods and services they will purchase.
The relationship between the individual and something larger than oneself, such as a broader sense of connection with the surrounding world, is referred to as:
Confucius set forth his Five Constant Relationships including the __________ relationship.
A category of religion called __________ refers to a belief in a god or gods.
was one of the first sociologists to emphasize that religion is essential to the maintenance of society. He suggested that religion is a cultural universal found in all societies because it meets basic human needs and serves important societal functions.
Since Hinduism has no scriptures that are thought to be inspired by a god or gods and is not based on the teachings of any one person, religion scholars refer to it as a(n)_____ religion—a system of beliefs that calls upon adherents to follow an ideal way of life.
For Karl Marx, __________ are systematic views of the way the world ought to be and they are embodied in religious doctrines and political values. They serve to justify the status quo and retard social change.
Some critics have attempted to eliminate all vestiges of civil religion from public life. However, sociologist Robert Bellah, who has studied civil religion extensively, argues that:
civil religion is limited to affirmations of loyalty and patriotism that members of any religion can accept.
Judaism follows the traditional practices and teachings, including eating only kosher foods prepared in a designated way, observing the traditional Sabbath, segregating women and men in religious services, and wearing traditional clothing.
Anthropologists have concluded that all known groups over the past hundred thousand years have had some form of religion one of which is __________.
The founder of ________, Siddhartha Gautama of the Sakyas, was born into the privileged class. He was referred to as Buddha, meaning "the Enlightened One," and spent his life teaching others how to reach nirvana.
Central to Hindu teachings is the belief that individual souls, referred to as_____, enter the world and roam the universe.
is associated with early hunting and gathering societies and with many Native American societies, in which everyday life was not separated from the elements of the natural world.
From a functionalist perspective, __________ is a function of religion.
providing social control and support for the government
According to __________, those who inhabit Heaven are ruled over by a supreme ancestor and are the ancestors of those persons who are on Earth. These forefathers are eventually joined by those who are currently on Earth; therefore, death is nothing more than the promotion to a more honorable estate.
Anti-Semitism has been a continuing problem in the United States. Like other forms of prejudice and discrimination, it has exacted a heavy toll on multiple generations of:
According to Hinduism, individual souls pass through a sequence of bodies over time as they undergo a process known as_____ (reincarnation), an endless passage through cycles of life, death, and rebirth until the soul earns liberation.
Buddhism is centered in Japan, China, and Korea and primarily focuses on meditation and the Four Noble Truths.
The ultimate goal of Hindu existence is entering the state of_____—becoming liberated from the world by uniting the individual soul with the universal soul (Brahma).
Functionalists argue that religion serves the function of social control and support for the government. Religion helps maintain social control by conferring __________ on the norms and laws of a society.
(NOT civil attention, rational legal authority)
The belief that human beings can become better through their own efforts rather than through belief in God and a religious conversion is known as:
According to ____________ theory, religion is essentially a rational response to human needs.
Today, there are an estimated_____million Jews worldwide; however, the majority reside in the United States, Israel, France, and Russia.
When _____first emerged in India some twenty-five hundred years ago, it was thought of as a "new religious movement."
The symbolic interactionist perspective on religion focuses on:
(NOT the functions that religious teachings and practices serve for individuals and society.)
According to sociologist Emile Durkheim, all religions share three elements. Which of the following is NOT one of these elements?
Rigid criteria for membership
is a system of beliefs and practices (rituals)—based on some sacred or supernatural realm—that guides human behavior, gives meaning to life, and unites believers into a single moral community.
was the official religion of China until the Communist takeover and the establishment of the People's Republic of China.
In very simple preindustrial societies, religion often takes the form of_____—the belief that supernatural forces affect people's lives either positively or negatively.
Secularization theory posited that __________ would be a major threat to the existence of religion.
According to the_____, those who have faith, perform good works, and achieve economic success are more likely to be among the chosen of God.
is a nontheistic religion—a religion based on a belief in divine spiritual forces such as sacred principles of thought and conduct, rather than a god or gods.
(NOT Simple supernaturalism)
The_____refers to the everyday, secular, or "worldly" aspects of life.
According to sociologist Emile Durkheim,_____refers to those aspects of life that are extraordinary or supernatural—in other words, those things that are set apart as "holy."
Although God guides human destiny, people are responsible for making their own ethical choices in keeping with His law; when they fail to act accordingly to the law, they have committed a sin. Also, fundamental to __________ is the belief that one day the Messiah will come to Earth, ushering in an age of peace and justice for all.
is the set of beliefs, rituals, and symbols that make sacred the values of the society and place the nation in the context of the ultimate system of meaning.
One of the best known religious leaders of modern times was Mohandas "Mahatma" Gandhi, the champion of India's independence movement, who was devoted to the_____ideals of nonviolence, honesty, and courage.
According to the symbolic interactionist approach, members of a religious group expect each member to perform certain normative religious beliefs. A ___________ is expected of members of a religious group, and this contributes to religion becoming a master status for some people.
The teachings of __________ Buddhism and specifically those of the Dalai Lama, emphasize the doctrine of ahimsa, or nonharmfulness, and discourages violence and warfare.
involves a decline in religion in everyday life and a corresponding increase in organizations that are highly bureaucratized, fragmented, and impersonal.
The doctrine of __________ is the belief that, even before they are born, all people are divided into two groups, the saved and the damned, and only God knows who will go to heaven (the elect) and who will go to hell.
is based on the belief that Heaven and Earth are not separate places but rather a continuum in which both realms are constantly in touch with each other.
Horticultural societies were among the first to practice_____, which is a belief in a single, supreme being or god who is responsible for significant events such as the creation of the world.
The third branch of Buddhism, __________, incorporates the first two branches along with some aspects of Hinduism; it emerged in Tibet in the seventh century.
Judaism is based on the belief that the Torah is binding only in its moral teachings and that adherents should no longer be required to follow all of the Talmud, the compilation of Jewish law setting forth the strict rabbinic teachings on practices such as food preparation, rituals, and dress.
According to Karl Marx, the capitalist class uses religious ideology as a tool of domination to mislead the workers about their true interests. In this regard, Marx referred to religion as the "_____of the masses."
Social meaning in religion emerges through the process of _________ and from interaction with others in a religious setting.
The argument over_____is the latest debate in a lengthy battle over the teaching of creationism versus evolutionism in public schools, and is only one of many arguments that will continue to take place regarding the appropriate relationship between public education and religion in the United States.
Today, approximately _________ people refer to themselves as Christians. The majority of Christians live in North or South America or in Europe.
(NOT one billion)
The Islamic notion of jihad, meaning "struggle," is a core belief. The_____ Jihad is believed to be the internal struggle against sin within a person's heart.
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