usually of peasant origin, had little formal education; served the smallest division of the church (the parish)
special ceremonies at which the participants received the grace of God to help them overcome the consequences of sin
managed a diocese, made up of a number of parishes
managed an archdiocese and had all of the powers of a bishop (on larger scale)
a group of counselors that advises the pope on legal and spiritual matters
1. secular clergy- priests, bishop, pope; lived among ordinary people
2. regular clergy- monastics (monks and nuns); strict rules
the way of life in monasteries and convents
elected head of the Benedictine community; controlled and distributed all property
Christianity in Ireland and England
Ireland: arrived in the 400s; St. Patrick's missionary work
England: arrived in 597; St. Augustine's missionary work
Political role of Church
Popes had power over all monarchies (or at least claimed)
Church's code of law
closed all churches of a certain region
a tribute to the church; 1/10th of a person's income
a bribe to be put in a high position in the church
the crime of holding a belief that goes against established doctrine
a search of heretics to eliminate heresy by the Church
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