Restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. Repetitive and stereotyped patterns also include intense adherence to routine and self-injurious behavior. Infants with ASD lack social interest, do not play interactive or imitative games, are extremely sensitive to touch and sound, and have abnormal sleep patterns. They have rigid eating patterns, like refusing to eat certain foods because of the smell, texture, or taste. Some of these children may also have IQs below 70. Behavioral problems such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, social anxiety, general anxiety, irritability, and aggression are common, as are depression and phobia. ADHD is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder with genetic, biological, and environmental influences. Like many other disorders, ADHD runs in families. Twin studies support its heritability. To date, genetic studies have identified at least seven different genes that may associate with ADHD. MRI studies reveal abnormalities in the frontal cortex, cerebellum, and subcortex when children with ADHD are compared with children who do not have this disorder. Other potential contributory factors include lead contamination, maternal smoking and/or alcohol use during pregnancy, pregnancy and delivery complications, and psychological risk factors such as marital discord, low socioeconomic status, large family size, and maternal psychological problems. Delirium is associated with a range of biological and environmental factors, but it is more often brought on by a serious medical illness, such as AIDS, congestive heart failure, infection, or toxic effects of a medication. Other biological causes of delirium include metabolic disorders, neurological disorders (such as head trauma, stroke, seizures, and meningitis), malnutrition, and alcohol or drug intoxication. The risk of delirium increases with age and cognitive impairment. Delirium is associated with dysfunction of prefrontal cortex, thalamus, and basal ganglia. Also, a number of neurotransmitters may be involved such as dopamine and serotonin Named after it's discoverer, Alois Alzheimer, Alzheimer's Disease is the most common subtype of neurocognitive disorder, accounting for about 75% of all patients. It has a slow and progressive course of cognitive decline. The first noticeable signs include forgetting recent events or names, repeating statements or questions, getting lost while driving in familiar places, and experiencing difficulty with calculations. Many of such patients are able to maintain a positive quality of life for some years after diagnosis. This disease results in more severe impairments in the ability to use language, make decisions, and engage in self-care. Behavioral problems also occur and include disrupted sleep, wandering, irritability, and aggression. The rate of progressive deterioration in cognitive capabilities and functioning increases as the severity of the disease worsens. Diagnosed when a patient's history, laboratory tests, and/or brain imaging studies indicate cognitive impairment as a result of cardiovascular disease such as stroke, transient ischemic attack, coronary artery disease, or untreated high blood pressure. In these conditions, blockages of blood vessels result in tissue death (infarction) in the brain. Damage may be to a single major vessel or lots of smaller ones. Vascular neurocognitive disorder has different clinical features than Alzhiemer's. Substance use, particularly alcohol-related disorder, can lead to dementia that is difficult to differentiate from Alzheimer's. Substance use may also increase vulnerability to other forms of dementia and for other contributing factors such as head trauma, infectious disease, and vitamin deficiency. Major and mild neurocognitive disorder occurs in five to ten percent of adults age 65 and over. Alzheimer's disease is the most common type, diagnosed in up to 75% of cases. Unfortunately, many patients with neurocognitive disorders remain undiagnosed and untreated. The impact of neurocognitive disorders on patients, their families, and the health care system is enormous. As cognitive abilities and functional capacity deteriorate, negative emotional, social, and behavioral outcomes occur. In the early stages, social and emotional withdrawal is common. Many Alzheimer's disease patients demonstrate anxiety and depression as well, which result in more behavioral problems and increased limitations in daily activities. By 2030, the percentage of people with neurocognitive disorders in the United States is expected to reach 65 million, with associated increases in health care costs. Neurocognitive disorder also affects family caregivers, who are at increased risk themselves for depression and anxiety. Until recently, our thinking has been dominated by the ideas of mind-body dualism. According to this view, mind and body function independently, although they may interact. This philosophy persisted for many centuries with significant efforts to identify biological causes for medical illness and a relative neglect of attention to psychological variables influencing physical health. Only recently psychology has begun to have a role in identifying and treating medical illness. At present, psychologists play important roles in prevention, treatment, or management of physical health problems. Gradually, psychologists found certain personality patterns related to specific medical illnesses. Now, the bio-psycho-social model of physical illness recognizes the contributions of body, mind, and the social environment to the development of illness Any negative emotional experience that is accompanied by biochemical, physiological, cognitive, and behavioral responses that attempt to change or adjust to the stressor. A stressor is any agent that produces tension or another negative emotion such as fear and prepares the organism for a fight-or-flight response. Stressors can be physical (such as a medical disease or physical injury), environmental (natural disaster, change in living situation), interpersonal-social (breakup of a relationship, argument with a family member), or psychological (having to pay a debt). Stress is more likely if an event has a negative outcome, but even some positive outcomes (such as a higher paying job with more responsibilities) can also cause stress. Stress occurs when an event is perceived as uncontrollable, unpredictable, or ambiguous. People react to stressors in a variety of ways The study of relations among social, psychological, and physical responses. People who are under severe and/or chronic stress are
more likely to catch a cold, develop an upper respiratory infection, or get the flu. Stress suppresses the ability of the immune system to function adequately and increases people's susceptibility to bacteria and viruses. When people are under stress, wounds heal more slowly, chronic diseases progress more rapidly, and vaccinations are less effective. People or animals under stress develop fewer antibodies following immunization for flu, hepatitis, and tetanus. Interpersonal interactions also affect cell activity and immune functioning. Hostility between spouses, for example, is associated with suppressed immune functioning. Loneliness and perceived social isolation are also associated with poor immune functioning. Happily married men have the best immune functioning.
The variables that affect how stress is experienced and how it affects health and other aspects of functioning. Personality traits are related to stress. As stated before, Type A personality (consistent striving for achievement, impatience and time urgency, and aggressiveness towards others) is
influenced more by stress than Type B personality (easy-going, flexible, and non-aggressive). Type A persons are usually keyed up and have difficultly relaxing. Persons who are hostile and angry, even if they do not have the full Type A pattern, have an increased risk for cardiovascular problems. Negative emotions and/or a pessimistic style have been linked to poorer immune functioning. Optimists, on the other hand, are sick less often and have lower blood pressure. One of the most important predictors of health is socioeconomic status, influenced by variables such as education, income, and occupation. Increased social support from family, significant others, friends, and others in the community also reduces the negative effects of stress.
Include relaxation training, biofeedback, and hypnosis. During biofeedback, patients learn to modify physical responses such as heart rate, respiration, and body temperature. During hypnosis, patients are taught to relax; a trance-like state is induced, and hypnotic suggestions are used to reduce pain and change pain-related thoughts. All of these interventions show positive effects. Cognitive behavioral treatments that involve relaxation, imagery, cognitive therapy (changing thoughts about pain), and behavioral changes can also be useful. Typically, more medical and non-medical strategies are integrated into a pain management program and is individually tailored for a patient's needs. Since the time of Hippocrates, physicians have proposed removing patients from society and housing them in environments where treatment can be provided in a humane setting. However, many of such hospitals and residences proved inadequate or even harmful that, during the 20th century, a movement came about to get patients out of institutions and back into community. At the time, it was felt that needed care would be best provided in smaller, more home-like environments, where patients could live with fewer residents. Placing patients in hospitals was common mainly because, until the 1960s, few treatments controlled aggressive behaviors effectively, making institutionalization the simplest way to protect the public.