89 terms

chapter 18

Treaty of Guadalupe hidalgo brought up issue of
The great political parties were
vital bonds of national unity
Politicians thought the best thing to do with the slavery issue was to
leave it alone
In 1848 the democrat's candidate was
Lewis Cass
Father of popular sovereignty
Lewis Cass
Popular sovereignty
rule by will of the people
The public liked the idea of popular sovereignty because
it accorded with democratic tradition of self determination
Politicians liked popular sovereignty because
it was a comfortable compromise between the antislavery bid for banning slavery and the south demands for protection of slavery
Poplar sovereignty turned the national issue into
a series of local issues
Determining slavery by popular sovereignty may have led to
the spread of slavery
The Whigs nominated _______ for the election of 1848
Zachary Taylor
The free soil party started because
the antislavery men in the north were suspicious of Cass and Taylor
The free soil party attracted
industrialists, democrats, anti-black, and conscience Whigs
The industrialists were drawn to the free soil party because
they were miffed by Polk's lower protective tariffs
The Democrats were drawn to the free soil party because
they were resentful of Polk only taking part of Oregon and yet all of Texas
The anti-blacks joined the free soil party because
they didn't want to share the new territories with the blacks
The free soil candidate of 1848 was
martin van buren
The free soil party _______ the Wilmot proviso
The free soil party advocated
federal aid for internal improvements and free government homesteads for settlers
The anti-blacks of the free soil party condemned slavery because
they destroyed the chances of free white workers to rise up from wage earning dependence to self-employment
During the election of 1848 the issues were ______ and the election was based on _____
pushed under the rug, personality
Taylor won the presidency mostly because he was
More money was earned in California by
providing services to the miners
The sudden influx of lawless miners and virtue less women led to
an outburst in crime
The outburst in crime in California led to
a state government
Why did California's petition to become a state create such chaos?
If they entered as free then the balance would be thrown off in the senate
How did the south fare in the 1850's?
Very well
What two states also wanted to be admitted as free?
New Mexico and Utah
In D.C. _____ was banned
the slave trade
Most slaves gained freedom by
The south was more upset about _____ than the outright theft
the moral judgments
The southern argument for slavery rested on
the constitution which protected slavery and the laws of congress which provided for slave catching
The south felt more a loss of ___ than ___
honor, property
The young guard of newcomers was more concerned with ______ and ______ than _______ and _______
purging and purifying, patching and preserving
How did President Taylor feel about the compromises?
He was against them
How did President/V.P. Fillmore feel about the compromises?
He was for them and gladly signed right away
Clays speeches in the north that increased their acceptance of compromise was strengthened by
a spirit of goodwill which came from a feeling of relief and an upsurge of prosperity enriched by the gold rush
How did the south feel about compromises?
They were opposed; they really wouldn't gain much from it
Who got the better deal in the compromise of 1850?
The north
Why did the north get the better deal?
California entered as free and tipped the senate balance in their favor, NM and UT would decide by popular sovereignty but were leaning toward free
The south wasn't happy because
Texas had land taken away and NM and UT were sure to become free and they lost equality in the senate, and slave trade was ended in D.C.
The only good thing the south got out of the compromise was
the fugitive slave law
How did the north feel about the fugitive slave law?
It was the worst of the compromises
What were the effects of the fugitive slave law?
It speeded up the timetable of the Underground Railroad, it infuriated northern mobs so they tried to rescue more slaves, northern states passed personal liberty laws, it awakened a spirit of antagonism in the north against the south
How did the south react to the North's reaction to the fugitive slave law?
They were upset that the north couldn't carry out on the South's one major gain from the compromise
As far as secession, from the South's standpoint
hey should have seceded
From the North's stand point regarding secession
they were better off if it was postponed
The postponement allowed the north to
grow in population and wealth and strengthen their moral will to fight for the union
The postponement ultimately allowed the north
to win the civil war
The democratic candidate of 1852 was
Franklin pierce
The wigs nominated ______ because in the past they had only won with
Winfield Scott, military leaders
The election of 1852 was an election of
personal attacks
The Whigs lost because
they were split between the north and south over their candidate
The free soil party nominated ____ in the election of 1852
john hale
____ won the election of 1852
The election of 1852 marked
the end of the Whig party and the end of the national parties and the start of sectional parties
What reinvigorated the spirit of manifest destiny?
The discovery of gold in California and the conquest over Mexico
The rush to the Sierra Nevada goldfields aroused concerns about
the fate of Central America
Why was Central America important?
Whoever controlled it would control the route between the pacific and Atlantic and therefore have sway over all maritime nations
British encroachment in Central America drove the U.S. and _____ to do what?
New Granada, make a treaty
The treaty between America and New Granada did what?
Guaranteed American right of transit across isthmus, Washington pledge to maintain neutrality of the route
This agreement between America and New Granada provided
the legal cover for Roosevelt to assert control over the Panama Canal Zone
The agreement between America and New Granada also led to
the construction of the first transcontinental railroad
Confrontation between the U.S. and Britain was avoided by
the Clayton Bulwer treaty
The Clayton Bulwer treaty stipulated
neither would fortify nor seek exclusive control over a future isthmian waterway
The south was interested in Central America because
the expansionists were looking for new slave territories
Cuba was a prospect for the south because
they already had slaves and it could be split into multiple states to restore the balance in the senate
The south tried to ____ Cuba ____ and what happened?
Seize, twice, second time many men of the best southern families shot and strangled
How did the south respond to the Cubans annihilation of the south?
They attacked the Spanish consulate in New Orleans
How did Spain react to the attack on their consulate?
They captured the American steamer black warrior
Why was it a good time for pierce to go to war with Spain?
The main European powers were involved in the Crimean war and would be unable to aid Spain
What made the U.S. a pacific power?
They had acquired California and Oregon
What was Caleb Cushing sent to do?
He was sent to open relations with China
Why was the Chinese eager to accept Cushing's offer?
They wanted to counter the meddlesome British
The treaty of wanghia was the
first formal diplomatic agreement between the U.S. and china
Extraterritoriality means
that U.S. citizens accused of crimes in china would be tried before American officials
What did relations with china open the door for?
American missionaries
What was included in the treaty of kanagawa?
Proper treatment of shipwrecked sailors, American coaling rights, and the establishment of consular relations
What was needed to make the acquisition of California and Oregon worthwhile?
Feasible land transportation
The only solution to the transportation problem was
a transcontinental railroad
Why did the north and south fight over where the railroad would be?
Wherever it started, that area would get the money, population increase, and influence
What did Secretary of War Jefferson Davis do to get the railroad in the south?
He appointed James Gadsden to Minister to Mexico and had him pay $10 million for a section of Mexico that the railroad would potentially pass through
Why did the south claim they should have the railroad?
The land was easier and it wouldn't have to pass through unorganized territory
How did the north react to the south's railroad claims?
They decided to organize the Nebraska territory
What did the Kansas Nebraska act involve?
Split the Nebraska territory into the two new states and repeal the Missouri compromise and the two states would decide slavery by popular sovereignty
Why was Stephen Douglas interested in a northern railroad?
He would personally gain from it because he had real-estate and railroad investments in Chicago which the train would pass through
How did the north and south react to the Kansas Nebraska act?
The south was for it and the north was against it because it could spread slavery
What did the Kansas Nebraska act do to the democrats?
It shattered the party and their last president was in 56 and then they didn't have one for 28 years
What was one durable offspring of the act?
The Republican Party which formed in the Wisconsin and consisted of Whigs, democrats, free soilers, know-nothings, and other foes of the act