NASM Chapter 7 Flexibility Training Concepts
Terms in this set (47)
The normal extensibility of all soft tissues that allows the full range of motion of a joint.
Capability to be elongated or stretched.
Dynamic Range of Motion
The combination of flexibility and the nervous systems ability to control this range of motion efficiently.
The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow agonists, antagonists and stabilizers to work synergistically to produce,reduce and dynamically stabilize the entire kinetic chain in all three planes of motion.
Postural Distortion Patters
Predictable patterns of muscle imbalances.
Muscle imbalance..poor posture...improper movement...injury
The tendency of the body to seek the path of least resistance during functional movement patterns.
Alteration of muscle length surrounding a joint.
The simultaneous contraction of one muscle and the relaxation of its antagonists to allow movement to take place.
Altered Reciprocal Inhibition
The concept of muscle inhibition, caused by a tight agonist, which inhibits its functional antagonist.
The nueromuscular phenomenon that occurs when inappropriate muscles take over the function of a weak or inhibited prime mover.
The motions of joints in the body.
Altered forces at the joint that result in abnormal muscular activity and impaired neuromuscular communication at the joint.
The process by which neural impulses that sense tension are greater than the impulses that cause muscles to contract, providing an inhibitory effect to the muscle spindles.
Consistently repeating the same pattern of motion, which may place abnormal stresses on the body.
States that soft tissue models alone the lines of stress.
The process of passively taking a muscle to the point of tension and holding the stretch for a minimum of 30 seconds.
Active Isolated Stretch
The process of using agonists and synergists to dynamically move the joint into a range of motion.
The active extension of a muscle using force production and momentum, to move the joint through the full available range of motion.
To Allow for Optimal Neuromuscular Efficiency
Individuals must have proper flexibility in all three planes of motion, which allows freedom of movement needed to perform everyday activities.
Has become increasingly recognized as an important way to help aid in preventing and treating various neuromuscular injuries.
Postural Distortion Patters (How)
Poor static or dynamic posture are represented by a lack of structural integrity,resulting from decreased functioning of one or more components of the HMS.
A lack of structural integrity can Result in
In altered length-tension relationships(altered muscle lengths),altered force-couple relationships(altered muscle activation) and altered arthokinematics (altered joint motion)
Maximal Neuromuscular Efficiency Can Only Exist If
All components muscular,skeletal and neural function optimally and interdependently.
Main Goal of HMS
To maintain homeostasis or dynamic postural equilibrium.
Muscle Imbalance Can Be Caused By
Postural stress,Emotional duress,Repetitive movement,Cumulative trauma,Poor training technique,Lack of core strength, and lack of neuromuscular efficiency.
Synergist: Muscles that assist prime movers during functional movement patterns.
Antagonist:Muscles that act in direct opposition to agonists(prime movers)
Agonist:Muscles that are the primary movers in a joint motion; known as prime movers.
Are sensory receptors located in the muscles and tendons help to determine muscle balance or imbalance, they include muscle spindles and golgi tendon organ.
Are the major sensory organ of the muscle and are composed of microscopic fibers that lie parallel to the muscle fiber.They are sensitive to change in muscle length and rate of length change.
Function of Spindle: Is to help prevent muscles from stretching too far or too fast.When lengthened muscle is stretched it increases the excitement of the muscle spindles and further creates a contraction(SPASM) response.
Golgi Tendon Organs
Located within the musculotendinous junction where the muscle and tendon meet. and are sensitive to changes in muscular tension and the rate of tension change, when excited the golgi tendon organ causes the muscle to relax which prevents injury.
Scientific Rationale for Flexibility training
Correcting muscle imbalances,Increasing joint range of motion,Decreasing the excessive tension of muscles, relieving joint stress and improving function.
Poor posture and repetitive movements create dysfunction within the connective tissue of the body,the body will initiate a repair process termed the cumulative injury cycle.
Cumulative Injury Cycle
Tissue trauma, inflammation, muscle spasm,adhesion's,altered neuromuscular control,muscle imbalance,back to =Cumulative Injury
A systematic progression, there are three phases of flexibility training with the OPT model:Corrective,active and functional.
Designed to increase joint ROM,improve muscle imbalances, and correct altered joint motion.Corrective includes self myofascial release (foam roll) techniques and static stretching.
Active uses self myofascial release and active-isolated stretching techniques ,it is designed to improve the extensibility of soft tissue and increase neuromuscular efficiency by using reciprocal inhibition.
Functional uses self myofascial release techniques and dynamic stretching.Dynamic stretching requires integrated, multi planar soft tissue extensibility, with optimal neuromuscular control,through the full range of motion, or essentially movement without compensations.
Corrective Flexibility:Self Myofascial Release
Active Flexibility: Self Myofascial Release
Functional Flexibility:Self myofascial Release
Tensor Fascia Latae(TFL)/ IIiotibial (IT)Band
Static Stretching Pushed to limits
By holding the muscle in a stretched position for a prolonged period,the Golgi tendon organ is stimulated and produces an inhibitory effect on the muscle spindle(autogenic inhibition) allows the muscle to relax and provides for better elongation of the muscle.
Static Stretch Example
Static Kneeling Hip FLexor Stretch
Active Isolated Stretching
This form of stretching increases motorneuron excitability;creating reciprocal inhibition of the muscle being stretched.These stretches are suggested for preactivity warm-up(such as before sports competition or high intensity exercise) as long as no postural distortion patterns are present.
Active Isolated Stretch Example
Active Supine Biceps Femoris Stretch
Stretch Example Dynamic
Medicine ball lift and chop
Straight Leg Toe Touch and
Filling in Template
In chapter 7 u can now fill in warm up exercises with myofascial release stretches or variety of stretches.
ex: SMR:Adductors 1 set,30 secs,coaching tip;hold each tender area for 30 sec.