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Chapter 2 -Radiation: Types, Sources, and Doses Received
Terms in this set (68)
Has different types of sources
Some types of radiation produce damage in biologic tissue, whereas others do not. True or false?
Sources of radiation:
Both natural and manmade
Contribute a percentage of the total amount of radiation that humans receive during their lifetime.
The ability to do work - that is, to move an object against resistance
Radiation refers to ______ _______ that passes from one location to another and can have many manifestations
How many types of radiation exist?
Radio, micro, infrared, visible, UV, x-rays, gamma
Electromagnetic spectrum from lowest to highest:
Electric & magnetic fields fluctuate rapidly as they travel through space
How electromagnetic waves are characterized:
Electromagnetic radiation has _________ nature.
Can travel through space in the form of a wave, but can interact with matter as a particle of energy
The electromagnetic spectrum can be divided into how many parts?
Two parts of electromagnetic spectrum:
X-rays, gamma rays, and high-energy ultraviolet radiation (energy higher than 10 eV)
Process of ionizaation
The foundation of the interaction of x-rays with human tissue
Non ionizing radiation
Low-energy ultraviolet, visible light, infrared rays, microwaves, and radio waves (does not have sufficient kinetic energy to eject electrons from atoms
Conversion of atoms to ions, makes tissues valuable for creating images, has the undesirable result of potentially producing some damage in the biologic material
The amount of energy transferred to electrons by ionizing radiation
Equivalent dose (EqD)
Correlates the absorbed dose in biologic tissue with the type and energy of the radiation to which a human has been subjected, applies only to ionizing types of radiation
Alpha, bets, neutrons, protons
Very high speeds
Particulate radiations ar subatomic particles that are ejected from atoms at:
Possess sufficient kinetic energy to be capable of causing ionization by direct atomic collision
How much ionization occurs when the subatomic particles are at rest?
Alpha particles / rays
contain 2 protons & 2 neutrons. Emitted from nuclei of very heavy elements such as uranium and plutonium during the process of radioactive decay
Alpha particles are simply:
Alpha particles have a large mass, approximately ______ times the mass of a hydrogen atom, and a positive charge twice that of an electron
Particulate radiations vary in their ability to penetrate matter. True or false?
Alpha particles are less penetrating than what?
Lose energy quickly as they travel a short distance in biologic matter, considered virtually harmless as an external source of radiation (can be stopped by a piece of paper)
As an _________ source of radiation, alpha particles can be very ______________.
If emitted from a radioisotope deposited in the body, such as in the lungs, _________ particles can be absorbed in the relativity radiosensitive epithelial tissue and are very demanding to that tissue
Beta particles / rays
Identical to high-speed electrons except for their origin. Emitted from the nucleus of a radioactive atom.
8000 times lighter than alpha particles, have only one unit of electrical charge (-1) as compared with the alpha's two units of electrical charge (+2)
_________ will not act as strongly with their surroundings as __________ particles do.
Beta particles are capable of penetrating with far _________ ______________ along their paths compares to alpha
High speed electrons (not beta radiation) are produced in a radiation oncology treatment machine called:
High speed electrons
Used to treat superficial skin lesions in small areas, to deliver radiation boost treatments to breast tumors at tissue depths typically not exceeding 5-6 cm
Lead, multicetimeter thick
High speed electrons require millimeter of __________ or ____________________ ________ slabs of wood to absorb them
Lesser probability of interaction
Beta rays have a:
Can penetrate matter more deeply and therefore cannot be stopped by an ordinary piece of paper like an external alpha particle
Positively charged components of an atom, have a relatively small mass that however, exceeds the mass of an electron by a factor of 2800
Atomic / Z number
Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom constitutes its:
Are the electrically neutral components of an atom, have approximately the same mass as a proton
Same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons in their nuclei
Combination of Z protons with so many neutrons leading to an unstable nucleus
A radiation quantity used for radiation protection purposes when a person receives exposure from various types of ionizing radiation
Used to specify (numerically) the differences in transferred energy and therefore biologic harm production by different types of radiation
SI unit of the EqD
Both occupational and nonoccupational dose limits are expressed in:
Effective dose (EfD)
Takes into account the dose for all types of ionizing radiation to various irradiated organs or tissues in the human body
Represents the uniform whole-body dose that would give an equivalent biologic response or chance of cancer
Produced by ionizing radiation while penetrating body tissues primarily by ejecting electrons from atoms composing of tissues
Molecular change, cellular damage, organic damage
Result of destructive radiation interaction at the atomic level:
Terrestrial radiation, cosmic radiation, internal radiation from radioactive atoms (radionucletides). These are what?
Consumer products containing radioactive material. TV's, electron microscopes, shoe-fitting, flour, some watches/clocks, air travel, nuclear power, atmospheric falls from weapons testing, Medical radiation)
Accounted for 48% of he total collective EfD of the U.S. population as of 2006
Diagnostic procedures, nuclear medicine procedures
The two largest sources of artificial radiation:
The patient dose for each examination is the same according to the facility providing imaging services. True or false?
Entrance skin exposure (ESE), bone marrow dose, gonadal dose, (fetal dose in pregnant women)
Radiation received by patients during procedures can be indicated by:
National council of radiation protection and measurements
NCRP Deals with medical radiation exposure of the U.S. population (report No. 160) reflects usage patterns through what year?
March 3, 2009
NCRP report No. 160 was released when?
Number of medical procedures involving ionizing radiation has increased dramatically since:
0.54 mSv to manmade background radiation
NCRP report No. 93, (in the 1980's) medical radiation exposure:
NCRP report No. 160 (2006) medical radiation exposure:
Humans are _________ to control natural background radiation
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