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All living things are made of cells, cells are the basic units of form and function in living things, all cells come from pre-existing cells.
organelles only found in plants
Chlroplast, cell wall, large vacuoles
Are very simple organisms and have only one cell
Are typically muliti-celled and are more complex
The structures inside a cell that have different jobs. (it is a part if a cell that carries out a specific role in the cell)
Found in both plant/animal cell, preforms the process of cellular respiration in which glucose us broken to provide energy for the cell.
A net like structure in the cytoplasm of an animal cell, doing final modification of protein in the cell which are to be selected.They molecularly tag the protein for secretion.
The cytoplasm in animal cells are larger than plant cells cytoplasm is a thick soup of protein ,carbohydrate, salt +-sugar .
The nucleolus is found inside the cell's nucleus, the nucleolus makes ribosomes for the cell.
The command center of the cell, contains DNA (deoxy ribonucleic acids the command molecule of the cell, surrounds by the membrane.
A double membrane that encloses genetic materials in Eukaryotic cells, separates contents of nucleus from cytosol, , many nuclear pore are present so that protein and genetic materials may pass.
Forms the outer boundary of animal cells, found inside the cell wall in plant cells, determines what can enter and leave a cell, made of protein and fat.
Made of protein and fat
rough endoplasmic reticulum
is responsible for modifying proteins that have been made by the cell, it is rough because the membrane is studded with ribosomes,
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
has membranes that are not covered with ribosomes , synthesizes or makes lipids for the cell
Only found in animal cells , help to organize the movement of DNA packages in structures called chromosomes during cell division.
serve different functions in plant and animal cells. In plant cells they store water , In animal cells they may contain water, food, or waste.
Are found attached to the RER, are also found floating in the cytoplasm.Their job is to make proteins that are molecules that help to build and repair cells,
Are digestive structures in the cell, they contain enzymes which are molecules that can break down other molecules down.
Made of cellulose, only found in plant cells, made of carbohydrate called cellulose, provide structure and support for plant cells.
Only found in plant cells, performs photosynthesis a process where glucose sugar and oxygen are made form carbon dioxide and water.
Forms teh cells skeleton. made of mirofilaments ( small) and mircotubulose(big) which are protein-based structures, Provide for teh cells internal structure and also for cellular movement .
cellular membrane is composed of?
composed of the lipid bilayer with protein channels
Chloroplast have stacks of sacs called?
a substance gains into a cell without passing through the cell membrane
a vesicle moves out of the cell when it fuses with the cell membrane
what will happen to a cell if a lysosome break open?
because lysome contain digestive enzymes if they break open inside a cell could die by digesting itself
what happens to a cell if a lysosome do not function property?
slow met abolism and eventual cell death, cell fillef with old and useless organelles, a person might have tay-sach disease or pompe's disease
why do plant cells have cell walls and animal cells dont?
plant cells need it to keep structure, shape , and tugur (internal water-pressure), instead , we have bones to keep our structure . it is the the cell wall that primarly directs plant shape and growth
vacuoles importance for plant cells
vaculous not only are large water tanks , but they also store organic compounds such as protein
how are the vacuoles from paramecia different from other organism
paramecia use vacuoles for water regilation (pumps water in and out) this keeps the organisms fluids from being too dilute or too concentrated.
how are the vacuoles from amoeba different from other organism
phagocytosis: a form of endocytosis where the cell changes shape to envelope food. Amoeba make a vacuole to hold their food.
Are the molecules that make up all living things!
The four main biomolecules we wil talk about are:
* Fats (lipids)
It is a molecules that is the smlalest single unit of a larger chain
It is a long chain of monomer molecules
Size of biomolecules
They are all large
Monomer: Amino acid
Polymer: the whole protein
a) large, complex molecules
b) containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, Nitrogen
c) Some also contain sulfur
Amino acids are...
*The bulding bloacks of proteins
*There are 20 differnt amino acids
* Proteins differ because of differnces in number and arrangment of amino acids
*Look at the structural or chemical formula to tell if a molecule is an amino acid...it will have nitrogen and/ or sulfur.
Where can you find proteins?
They are used to form cell structures (cell membrane) and regulate and control a cell's functions (enzymes)
monomer: Fatty acid + glycerol
a) Molecules made of hydrogen, crabon and oxygen
b) Thye include fats (animal) and oils (plant)
c) the body uses theses as a source of energy
d) They are made of 3 fatty acids + a glycerol group
Polymer: Crabohydrates (Starch and cellulose)
a) Molecules made from oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon atom
b) they provide energy and provide shape for the organism
a) There are the single sugars Ex: glucose (C6H12O6)
b) Glucose is made by planst during photosynthesis
c) Humans break down the crabohydrates they eat into glucose for energy.
a) These are the double sugars were two monosaccharide are attached together. Ex: lactose (C12H22011)
a) larfe molecules formed when many momsaccharides bond together to form chains.
b) The most common ones are starch and cellulose
Polymer: DNA, RNA
a) They are teh genetics material of the cell
b) They are large and complex molecules
c) They are made of carbon, Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorous (maybe)
d) They also control the production of proetins in the cell,
What do all living thinsg need?
They need all these 4 biomolecules
the solid that dissolves. Ex: Coolaid powder
the liquid that does the dissolving Ex: water
the mixture that is made when you dissolve the solute in the solvent. Ex: Coolaid drink.
the strenght of a solution
describes solutions with different concentrations in the same space * molcules move from high concetration to low concentration
the movement of substance across a cell membrane without the use of energy
molecules move from high concentration to low concentration
diffusion, osmosis,( a special type of diffusion and facilitated diffusion.
movement of molecules from high to low concentration until equilibrium is reached.* movement of any small uncharged molecule ( oxygen, water,glucose,ETC.)
equal distribution of molecules in all areas*
diffusion of WATER from high to low concentration. It does not require energy.
This is osmotic pressure. Ex : turgor pressure in plant
a solution with a higher concentration of molecules compared to the internal contents of a cell.* water leaves the cell trying to dilute external concentration.
same concentration* no water movement.
lower concentration of solution than the internal contents of the cell* water moves into the cell to dilute internal concentration.
a carrier protein moves larger molecules (like starches) across the cell membrane, down the concentration gradiet (from high to low concentration); does not require energy
a movement from low to high concentration. Requires energy in a transport protein.
"Self feeders" They make their own glucose Ex:all plants
These organisms can't make their own food,must eat other organisms for energy.
process of changing ligh energy from the sun into chemical energy in the form of glucose
chemical formula fo Photosynthesis
6CO2+12H20+Light energy -----> C6H12O6 +6O2
Wher does photoynthesis take place?
In Chloroplast! Plants use photosynthesis ,pigment,chorophy to do this Thylakoids=holds chlorophyll
Plants are the orgainism to make glucose -->we must break it down during cellular respiration for energy breaks between atom in a molecule releases energy *if you put glucose molecules together you get a starch or cellulose (carbs)
cemical equation for combustion
the process of breaking down glucose to obtain cellular energy (ATP)
location:In mitochondri of the eukaryotic cell
chemical equation for cellular respiration
Maximum ATP created when one glucose is burned
*Stands for ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE which is a complex molecule
*ATP is usable energy that is stored in the bond between the parts of the ATPmolecule
*Breaking an end of a phoshate group release energy
When an end of a phosphate group breaks ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE is made
Why cellular respiration important?
*energy to produce ATP from ADP comes from sunlight or food
*CR provides energy the cells need to function
*no energy no life
*all living oranismd preform same type of CR
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