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PSY 200 Chapter 3: Part 1
Terms in this set (15)
What are 2 other names for respondent conditioning?
1. Pavlovian conditioning
2. Classical conditioning
What are respondent behaviors? Give 2 examples.
Behaviors elicited by prior stimuli and are not affected by their consequences.
Ex 1: Salivating when smelling dinner cooking
Ex 2: Feeling scared when watching a scary movie
What is an unconditioned reflex? Give 2 examples.
An unconditioned reflex is a stimulus-response relationship in which a stimulus automatically elicits a response apart from any prior learning. For example:
a. food in the mouth --------salivation
b. pepper in the nose ---------sneezing
What is the principle of respondent conditioning?
Neutral stimulus gradually gains ability to elicit response due to pairing with unconditioned stimulus
If a neutral stimulus (that does not elicit a particular response) is closely followed in time by a second stimulus that elicits a particular response, then the neutral stimulus will come to elicit the response that was elicited by the second stimulus. Another name for respondent conditioning is Pavlovian conditioning, or classical conditioning.
What is a conditioned reflex? Give an example.
A conditioned reflex is a stimulus-response relationship in which a stimulus elicits a response because of prior respondent conditioning. Example, in Pavlov's experiment after a tone had been paired with food (that elicited salivation) several times, the presentation of the tone along came to elicit salivation. The tone-salivation sequence was a conditioned reflex.
What is an unconditioned stimulus? Give an example.
Unconditioned Stimulus: A stimulus that elicits a response without prior learning or conditioning. Example: (UR) FOOD → (US) SALVATION
What is an unconditioned response? Give an example.
Unconditioned Response: a response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus. Example: Salivating by smelling or seeing food.
What is a conditioned stimulus? Give an example.
Conditioned Stimulus: a stimulus that elicits a response because that stimulus has been paired with another stimulus that elicits a response. Example: The opening motif of Beethoven's fifth symphony.
What is a conditioned response? Give an example.
Conditioned Response: a response elicited by a conditioned stimulus. Example: Salivating to the opening motif of Beethoven fifth symphony because it has been paired with the US of food.
What are 5 variables that influence the development of a conditioned reflex?
First, the greater the number of pairing of a CS with a US, the greater is the ability of the CS to elicit the CR, until a maximum strength of the CR has been reached.
Second, stronger conditioning occur if the CS precedes the US by about half a second, rather than a longer time r rather than following the US.
Third, a CS acquires greater ability to elicit a CR if the CS is always paired with the US than if it is only occasionally paired with the US.
Fourth, when several neutral stimuli precede a US, the stimulus that is most consistently associated with the US is the one most likely to become a strong CS.
Fifth, respondent conditioning will develop more quickly and strongly when the CS or US or both are intense rather than weak.
Give an example of a conditioned taste aversion.
For example, when someone is younger, they might overeat or drink something in a short period of time, and become violently ill soon after. an Since that time, the smell or taste of the same food or drink causes them to feel instant nausea
Why do you think that we have evolved so that we are susceptible to conditioned taste aversion?
Because it has survival value. If tasting a potentially damaging substance can cause us to be violently ill after tasting it just once, then it decreases the likelihood that we would consume such a substance again, which could have disastrous consequences.
What is biological preparedness? Give an example.
Biological preparedness is a term coined by Seligman (1971) to refer to the predisposition of members of a species to be more readily conditioned to some neutral stimuli as conditioned stimulus then others. For example humans learn more quickly to fear snakes and insects that pose a threat to our survival than to stimuli such as pictures of flowers that are nonthreatening.
Are all stimuli equally capable of becoming a CS? Explain.
It is all dependent on which stimuli have posed a threat to our survival etc.
What is the process of counterconditioning? Give an example.
A conditioned response may be eliminated more effectively if a new response is conditioned to the conditioned stimulus at the same time that the former conditioned response is being extinguished
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