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Religion Exam 4
Terms in this set (27)
Describe different approaches advocated by various groups of Jews to the political situation in Judea and Galilee during the time of Jesus. What option did Jesus introduce to this mix? 207-208
1. The Sadducees accomodated to Helenistic culture and roman rule
2. The Essenses engaged in property-sharing communes and devoted in piety.
3. Pharisees revitalized Judaism
4. Armed Rebellion
5.Whether the social system that the holiness code structured was compassionate instead dividing people; challenge existing order and advocating an alternative vision of the human community
How does anyone make sense of Jesus' extraordinarily difficult hard sayings? 213
To see them as cut from his understanding of the god who loves human being absolutely without calculating worth or due instead of experiencing it.
Discuss the significance of Jesus's disciples' experiences of Jesus as resurrected, and physically present among them as foundational for Christianity and its understanding of who Jesus is. 214
Jesus is seen as having qualities of god and could be known everywhere rather only when physically present. Jesus death and resurrection was seen in a status of uncommon goodness in the universe. The love the disciples have been able to experience through Jesus seemed to be more powerful than death. That is what made faith in such a claim powerful.
In what ways is the church in Christianity understood as the "body of Christ"? 217
although understanding the church as the body of Christ seems mystical but not unreal. In that sense, christ exchanged his human body to a new physical body( church) to complete his mission. Christians, in this metaphor, as cells to sustain the mystical body to incorporate them into Christ's person.
Describe the limitations on the doctrine of the pope's infallibility in the teaching of the Catholic Church. 223
1. Pope not claimed to have extraordinary intelligence
2. God does not help him answer every conceivable question
3. Catholic don't have to accept pope's view on politics.
4. The pope can mistakes in scientific or historical opinions; sin
What is the function of the "sacraments" in the Catholic Church? 224
Calls followers to live a life of charity and service that are supernatural in the sense that it is pulling us against our natural instincts. The church provide this to help society. They parallel the great moments and needs of human life.
Discuss the exceptionally corporate view of the Church that characterizes Eastern Orthodox Christianity. 226-227
God's truth revealed through the consensus of the church. Each christian is not working to save their soul only but to obtain salvation with and through the rest of this church. The destiny of the individual is tied to the entire church and individuals are responsible for helping to sanctify the worlds of nature and history. In sum, ecclesiastical equality of its members, solidarity, actively pursue a mystical life to experience the happiness of god's indwelling.
What do Protestants mean when they speak of "justification by faith"? 228
Faith is the response to the entire self, which includes movement of the mind, heart, and will prompted by love. In consequence, human being can restore relationships with other people and the ground of their being. For example, unless the creed reaches one's heart and change the way life feels, they are just mouthings.
How does the "protestant principal" relate to the dangers of idolatry? 229
Protestant principle warns against absolutizing the relative and warns against idolatry. Two major forms of idolatry is papal infallibility and deification of private religious experience. The major problem with idolatry lies in the fact that you can't invest in idols because they are limited, incapable of delivering unlimited investment.
What is the significance of the word Islam? How does this word relate to the word Muslim? 146
The significance of the word Islam comes from the word salam which has two meanings: peace and surrender. Therefore, peace that comes from surrendering one's life to god. Those who adhere to islam are known as muslims.
Describe the conditions in Arabia and the relationships among the Arab tribes at the time of Muhammad's birth. 148
1. Muslim were ignorant
2. scarcity of material goods made gangs territory a proof of strength
3.Collapse of magistrate and political stalemate made situation worse
4. Prevailing religion provided no solution
3. Arab tribes erupted in fights in public areas and feuds
What factors in Muhammad's youth may have contributed to his sensitivity to human suffering, and his concern for the weak and the poor? 148
1. Both his parents died
2. His uncle raised him affectionately
3. Angels of god opened his heart and filled it with light.
What is the English translation of the Arabic phrase La ilaha illa 'llah? 149
"There is no god but god"
Muhammad insisted that Allah did not send him to work wonders. What was the only miracle that Muhammad claimed? 151
The only miracle that Muhammad claimed is the Koran itself. He could not accept that with his own resources could not have produced such a truth.
What are three reasons for the violent and hostile reaction of so many of Muhammad's fellow Arabs to his message from Allah? 151
1. monotheistic nature threatened revenues coming to mecca from pilgrimages to 360 shrines of gods.
2. demand an end to licentiousness
3. social content challenged unjust orders
What were the circumstances that led Muhammad to depart Mecca and migrate with his followers to the city of Yathrib [Medina]? 152-3
1. Muhammad's teaching has been able to have hold firm in Yathrib.
2. cities facing internal rivalries that needed an impartial leader
3. Made a delegation pledge to worship allah only and observe the precept of islam
In what way is Islam's understanding of the place and role of the Koran in their faith similar to the place and role of Jesus in the Christian faith? 154
The koran is the earthly center of their faith. Muslims tend to read the Koran literally. Quran is the speech of Allah. Since Allah's speech is uncreated, it logically follows that the Quran is also uncreated. This is the same way Christians consider Jesus. Jesus is thought to be the human incarnation of god, the same way koran is viewed in Islam.
In what significant way are the text and content of the Koran different from the text and content of the Jewish and Christian Bibles? 155
God speaks in the first person; he describes himself and makes known his laws .
Muslim considers each sentence as a separate revelation and experience each word as a means of grace.The old and new testament does not have Divine speech and merely report things.
Describe in two to three sentences Islam's understanding of God. 157
Although God is invisible, he is real. Therefore, he has no rival. God's power inspires respect and fear. However, God's love outweighs that holy fear.
Describe in two to three sentences Islam's understanding of creation. 157-158
Allah deliberately created the world. The world of matter is real and it is nearly as perfect as the creator. This inspires respect for the material side of life.
Describe in two to three sentences Islam's understanding of the human self. 158
People forget their divine origin but their nature is always good, therefore, entitled to self-respect and a healthy self-image. Each human life is obliged to be thankful for life and surrender one's life to god. To be a voluntary slave to allah we can be freed from other forms of slavery.
Describe in two to three sentences Islam's understanding of judgment 158-9
Each soul will be held accountable for its actions and future depends upon how well we observed god's commandments. Souls judge themselves instead of Allah. Death burns away self-serving defenses and only our actions remain and they speak about how are life has been led.
What are the "five pillars of Islam"? Write one to two sentences about the significance of each pillar. 160-163
1. Islam's Creed: Confession of faith known as the shahadah: There is no god but allah and muhammad is his prophet". The first half announces the cardinal principle of monotheism. The second part affirms the the Muslim faith depends on Muhammad's life and validity of his revelation. At least it is said once in a lifetime and it is the ultimate answer to all questions.
2. law of Prayer: This keeps human life in perspective and orients their will toward allah. A muslim must pray five times a day in the direction of mecca.
3. Charity: Annually, two and one half percent of one's earnings should be for the poor. Recipients of charity are named.
4. Observance of the Ramadan: It observes two occasions: Koranic revelation and Muhammad migration to mecca. Followers are obliged to fast and not be sexually active. Fasting makes one reflect personally.
5. pilgrimage: Every Muslim must make a journey to Mecca where god's important revelation descended. This increases commitment to god and his will. It is also a reminder of human equality and international understanding.
Discuss Islam's teaching with respect to economics. 166
Islam does not object to profit motive, economic competition, or innovation. Acquisition and competition be balanced by fair play and compassion for the poor. The koran requires inheritance to be shared by all heirs, including daughters.
Discuss Islam's teaching with respect to the status of women. 166-167
Islam permits a man to have many wives. Koranic reforms improved the lives of women. The koran leaves open the possibility of women's full equality with man (no infanticide and share of inheritance). When speaking of marriage, Islam sanctified marriage by making the only place of sexual act, allowed women to freely choose who she will marry, tightened the wedding bond (gratification). Koran does not forbid divorce, but it should be the last resort.
Discuss Islam's teachings with respect to race relations. 168
Islam stresses racial equality. Koran permits intermarry and Abraham is the first model. Malcolm X discovered there were no racism on his way to his pilgrimage to Mecca.
Discuss Islam's teachings with respect to the use of force. 168-169
Muslim does not counsel pacifism.It teaches forgiveness and the return of good for evil depending of circumstances. Koran allows punishment of wrongdoers. The koran endorses a holy war. The holy war should be either defensive or to right a wrong.
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