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PSY 200 Chapter 3: Part 2
Terms in this set (10)
What is respondent stimulus generalization? Give an example.
occurs when an organism has been conditioned so that a particular CS elicits a CR, and then a similar stimulus elicits that CR.
Ex: While the dentist is drilling a cavity that you have, you experience considerable pain while sitting in the dentist's chair. The sound of the dentist's drill is likely to become a CS causing you to cringe. Later, while visiting the meat market and hearing the sound of the butcher's cutting machine, you feel yourself cringing.
What is respondent stimulus discrimination? Give an example.
a stimulus functions as a CS to elicit a CR because that stimulus has been paired with a US that elicits that CR, but a similar stimulus does not function as a CS for that CR because the second stimulus has been paired with extinction trials.
Ex: If the sight of a wild wolf elicits fear in a child, but not a pet dog.
In the example of Susan learning to fear performing the double axel jumps, what was the US, UR, CS, CR?
US: consistently falling when she first started practicing her jump;
UR: intense fear;
CS: time at which she approached the takeoff position;
CR: feeling of strong fear.
Describe how counterconditioning was involved to help Susan overcome her fear of attempting a double axel jump?
Coach taught her a breathing exercise, telling her to say "r-e-l-a-x" overtime she exhales and then skate around and approach the take-off position while doing the breathing exercises.
In the respondent conditioning component for treating alcoholism, what is the US, UR, CS, and CR?
Disulfiram was a US that produced nausea and other extremely unpleasant effects as URs. After several pairings of drinking alcohol with nausea, the sight, smell, and taste of the drink became CSs causing nausea as a CR
What is aversion therapy? Give an example.
Aversion therapy is the process of pairing something unpleasant with an undesirable behavior with the goal of decreasing that undesirable behavior.
For example disulfiram is a US causing nausea after several pairings of drinking alcohol with nausea (caused by the disulfiram), the sight, smell, and taste of the drink became CS's causing nausea as a CR. A side effect of this respondent condition process was that the client no longer experienced the desire to drink alcohol.
Describe a respondent conditioning procedure for treating constipation. What is the US, UR, CS, and CR?
An example of respondent conditioning of a desirable response is the treatment for chronic constipation. Defecation, the desired response in case of constipation, can be elicited by administering a laxative. However, reliance on such drugs to achieve regularity is not the healthiest solution. Instead, clients administered to themselves a distinctive electrical stimulus. Defecation (UR) was initially elicited by a laxative (US), and then the amount of the drug was gradually decreased until defecation (CR) was elicited by the electrical stimulus (CS) alone. These clients achieved regularity without the continued use of artificial stimulation.
Describe a respondent conditioning component of a procedure for treating nocturnal enuresis. What is the US, UR, CS, and CR?
- Bell sounds as soon as the first drop of urine hits the bell pad, awakening the child
NS: urination (pressure on bladder)
US: bell sound → UR: awakens child
CS: Pressure on bladder → CR: child wakes
- eventually the child will awaken before urination- apparently because the response of waking up has been conditioned to the stimulus of pressure on the bladder
- Operant responses of getting up, walking to the bathroom, and urinating in the toilet should be positively reinforced by the child's parents
What is operant behavior? Give an example.
Operant behavior is behavior that is influenced by its consequences. Behavior that affects or "operates on" the environment to produce consequences and which is, in turn, influenced by those consequences.
For example putting gas in your car, asking for directions, writing an exam, turning on a computer and making breakfast.
What is operant conditioning? Give an example.
Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which behavior is modified by its consequences. For example, through operant conditioning, we have learned to turn on a water tap to produce water, and not to touch a hot stove because the pain following past instances of doing so.
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