Psych AP Chapter 4: Sensation

Absolute Threshold
The minimum amount of physical energy needed to produce a sensory experience
Difference Threshold
Smallest physical difference between 2 stimuli that can still be recognized as a difference
Operational Definition
Stimulus level at which sensory signal is detected half of the time
Layer at the back of the eye that contains rods and cones; converts light energy to neural responses
Photoreceptors in the retina that help you see in the dark
Photoreceptors in the retina that help you see color
Structure that focuses light in the eye
Colored part of the eye
Optic Nerve
Part of the Eye that carries information from the eye towards the brain
The way the eye works
Rays of light entering your eye are bent first by the curved transparent cornea, pass through the liquid aqueous humor and the hole through your muscular iris called the pupil, are further bent by the lens, and pass through your transparent vitreous humor before focusing on the rods and cones in the back of your eye
Complementary Colors
Colors opposite each other on the color wheel
Trichromatic Theory
Theory stating that 3 types of color receptors produce the primary color sensations of red, green and blue
Color Blindness
Inability to see certain wavelengths of color; most common form is red and green; most common in males
Auditory Nerve
Nerve that carries impulses from cochlea to the brain
Primary organ of hearing; fluid filled coiled tube located in the inner ear
Basilar Membrane
Stimulates hair cells that produce the neural effects of auditory stimulation
Thin membrane that takes sound wave's vibrations from outer ear to middle ear
Middle ear bones
This consists of hammer, anvil, stirrup
How hearing works
Your outer ear channels sound waves to the eardrum that vibrates with the sound waves. This causes the middle ear bones to vibrate. The vibrating stirrup pushes against the oval window of the cochlea. Inside the cochlea is the basilar membrane with hair cells that are bent by the vibrations and transduce this mechanical energy to the electromechanical energy of neural impulses. Hair cells synapse with auditory neurons whose axons from the auditory nerve. The auditory nerve transmits sound messages through your medulla, pons, and thalamus to the auditory cortex of the temporal lobes.
Vestibular Sense
Sense that tells how one's own body is oriented in the world with respect to gravity
Kinesthetic Sense
Provides constant sensory feedback about what the body is doing during motor activities
5 tastes
Umami, Sweet, Saline (Salt), Sour, Bitter