10 terms

Notable pathogens

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Flu (virus)
Segmented
Allows for reassortment
Must have all 8 to be viable
Nomenclature H?N?
Hemagglutinin
binding and entry
16types
Neurominidase
entry and release
9 types
Seasonal vs Pandemic
Important animals: pigs and birds
HIV(virus)
ssRNA virus, + sense
lentivirus, from the family Retroviridae
No vaccine:
Hard target
spread both sexually and blood
Likely transmitted as a cell free and cell associated virus
Rapid evolution of the virus
Filariasis (parasitic) Elephant
mosquitoes
transmission method is contaminative
Vector
Circadian Rhythm
24-hr cycle = diel periodicity
day - completely disappear, hide in lungs
night - enter blood stream
A single infective bite very unlikely to result in symptoms
blocked lymphatics
swelling
hardening of skin
fever
pain
social outcast
(elephant)
Malaria (parasite)
Plasmodium (apicomplexan)
5 species that infect humans
Only transmitted by vector anopheline mosquitoes
½ the world's population is currently at risk
60 of the 380 known sp.
Can invade spinal chord and brain
Invades both old and young RBC
Faster reproductive rate and shorter period between infection and symptoms
Spreads through a susceptible population more rapidly, even though it kills a higher proportion of infected
Often fatal if untreated.
Some human populations have developed resistance
Symptoms
Relapsing fevers/chills
Flu-like
Spleen enlargement
Liver/kidney failure
Brain damage
Leishmania (parasite)
3 types:
Cutaneous
Mucocutaneous
Visceral
Kala-Azar "Black Fever"
Symptoms
Skin sores
Flu like (weight loss, fever, fatigue)‏
Anemia, hemorraging
Enlarged glands/spleen/liver
Protozoan parasite
transmitted by the bite of female phlebotomine sandflies
Listeria (bacteria)
Listeria monocytogenes
Causes - listeriosis, a rare but potentially lethal food-borne infection (~25%)

Found:
naturally occurring in soil
Animals can also be carriers.
Listeria has been found in uncooked meats, uncooked vegetables/fruit, unpasteurized and processed foods.
Majority of Listeria bacteria are targeted by Immune System
Survivors spread through intracellular mechanisms and are, therefore, guarded.
Prevention
effective sanitation of food contact surfaces
thoroughly cook food

Non-invasive
stays in gut
muscle pain, fever, diarrhea
req only supportive care

invasive
spreads to blood stream and CNS
2 weeks + hospital care
heavy dose of antibiotics
Lyme (Bacterial)
Bacterial Disease caused by 3 Borrelia species
Transmitted by ticks
Contained in stomach, passed during feeding
incidence greatest in NY State

Lyme disease can affect multiple body systems, producing a range of potential symptoms.
Multiple phases of infection
Localized Infection
Treatable with antibiotics
2. Distal Bulls-eye rashes
Discrete symptoms:
migrating pain
dizziness
heart palpitations
3.Myriad of neurological symp
fibromyalgia
delusional behavior
Plague (bacteria)
Gram negative coccobacillus
It is the most lethal, virulent and invasive bacteria known to man.
Bubonic- characterized by hemorrhaging lymph nodes which make big bumps (from the Greek bubo for Groin)
Pneumonic- passed in droplet form (aerosol)
Septicemic - True 'Black Death'

Bollus forms - cluster of bacilli that clogs entry to gut
Host flea becomes voraciously hungry
Host flea bites more frequently
If flea's gut is clogged, previously ingested bacilli will be regurgitated into next fleabite victims
Gentamicin or streptomycin can be used. ß-lactams are not useful.
Doxycycline can be used for post-exposure prophylaxis.
TB (bacteria)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Divides every16 to 20 hours
Human to human transmission ONLY
Mycobacterium bovis
Common cause of Tb prior to pasturization
Transmission
Aerosolized droplets
Latent
NOT INFECTIOUS
Increased Risk
Co infected with HIV
Located only in lungs
Extrapulmonary
Mound in young children, Immunosupressed
Carried to all parts of the body through bloodstream
Brucella (Proteobacteria)
Treatment may not cure
All can potentially infect man
"Zoonosis" - a disease in animals(cows) that can be transmitted to humans
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