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Chapter 11: Pastoral Peoples on the Global Stage
Terms in this set (23)
A type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter.
Great ruler of the Xiongnu Empire who created a centralized and hierarchical political system
nomadic raiders from the grasslands north of China during the reign of Han dynasty; emperor Wudi fought against them in the mid-100s BC
A member of the Turkish-speaking ethnic group in Turkey, or, formerly, in the Ottoman Empire
An Islamic religious brotherhood that established an empire in North Africa and southern Spain in the 11th century A.D.
Title meaning "universal ruler" that was given to this Mongol leader in 1206 after he united the Mongols.
The Mongol World War
Term used to describe half a century of military campaigns, massive killing, and empire building pursued by Chinggis Khan and his successors in Eurasia after 1209.
Yuan Dynasty China
Mongol dynasty that ruled China from 1271 to 1368; its name means "great beginnings."
Reigned in China after establishing the Yuan Dynasty; he actively promoted Buddhism; descendant of Chinggis Khan.
Grandson of Chinggis Khan and ruler of Ilkhan khanate; captured and destroyed Abbasid Baghdad.
A Mongol princess (ca. 1260-1306) whose exploits in battle and wrestling, along with her choice of husbands, provide insight into the relative freedom and influence of elite Mongol women in their societies.
Kipchak Khanate/Golden Horde
Name given to Russia by the Mongols after they conquered it and incorporated it into the Mongol Empire in the mid-thirteenth century; known to Russians as the "Khanate of the Golden Horde."
a form of bubonic plague that spread over Europe in the 14th century and killed an estimated quarter of the population.
In what ways did pastoral societies differ from their agriculture counterparts?
Pastoral societies supported far smaller populations.
In what ways did pastoral neighbors interact with their agricultural neighbors?
Economically, nomads sought access to the foodstuffs, manufactured goods, and luxury items available only from their agricultural neighbors
In what ways did the Xiongnu, Arabs, Turks, and Berbers make an impact on world history?
The Xiongnu effected a revolution in nomadic life, transforming earlier fragmented and egalitarian societies into a far more centralized and hierarchical political system in which power was concentrated in a divinely sanctioned ruler and differences in the status of clans were more pronounced.
Identify the major steps in the rise of the Mongol Empire?
Temujin brought the Mongols together into a unified Mongolian nation, through the incorporation of warriors from defeated tribes into his own forces.
What accounts for the political and military success of the Mongols?
The Mongol army was better organized, better led, and better disciplined than the armies of its opponents
How did Mongol rule change China? In what ways were the Mongols changed by China?
The Mongols united a divided China. Mongol khans made use of traditional Confucian rituals
What was distinctive about the Persia different from that in China?
Heavy taxation pushed Persian peasants off their land
What was distinctive about the Russian experience of Mongol rule?
The Mongols conquered Russia but did not occupy it as they had Persia and China. Instead.
What kinds of cross-cultural interactions did the Mongol Empire generate?
Actively promoted international commerce
Disease changes societies. How might this argument apply to plague?
The loss of population due to the plague created labor shortages that provoked sharp conflict between scarce workers and the rich, which in turn undermined the practice of serfdom in Europe.
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