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208 terms

Music A Theory and History

STUDY
PLAY
a tempo
return to the original tempo
adagio
slowly
agitato
agitated
allargando
broadening
allegro
quickly
andante
walking tempo
brio
spirit, vigor
cantabile
in a singing style
con
with
crescendo
gradually getting louder
D.C.
return to the begining
D.S.
return to the sign
decrescendo
gradually getting softer
dolce
sweetly
espressivo
expressively
fine
end
forte
loud
fortissimo
very loud
giocoso
playful
grandioso
grand
grave
solemn
grazioso
graceful
l'istesso
same l'
largo
very slowly
legato
smooth, connected
leggiero
light
maesto
majestically
marcato
marked, accented
meno
less
mezzo
medium
moderato
moderately
molto
much
morendo
dying away
mosso
motion
moto
motion
pianissimo
very soft
piano
soft
piu
more
poco
little
poco a poco
little by little
presto
very quick
rallentando
gradually getting slower
ritardando
gradually getting slower
rubato
with freedom
sempre
always
sforzando
heavily accented, with force
simile
same si
sordino
mute
staccato
detached
stringendo
gradually getting faster
subito
suddenly
tenuto
connected, full value
tranquillo
tranquil
tutti
all
vivace
lively
A cappella
Unaccompanied choral singing
Accelerando
The music gradually becomes faster
Alto (voice)
The lowest female voice
Arpeggio
Notes of a chord played one after the other
Ascending
Notes which rise in pitch
Bass (voice)
The lowest male voice
Bowing
Using a bow for a stringed instrument
Brass
A family of instruments made from metal with a mouthpiece, e.g. trumpet and trombone
Broken chord
The notes of a chord are played separately
Cadenza
Performers improvise and play to show-off
Canon
After one part starts to play or sing a melody, another part enters shortly afterwards with exactly the same melody
Chord
Two or more notes sounding together
Compound time
The beat is divided into groups of three pulses
Concerto
Work for solo instrument and orchestra
Crescendo
The music gradually becomes louder
Descant
Another melody above the main tune
Descending
Notes which fall in pitch
Diminuendo
The music gradually becomes quieter
Drone
One note, held on or repeated in the bass.
Fanfare
A short piece played on trumpets for an occasion
Flutter tonguing
A method of tonguing in which the player rolls the letter r
Glissando
Sliding from one note to another
Harmony
The sound of two or more notes made at the same time
Imitation
Where the melody is immediately copied higher or lower in another part
Jazz
At first this was music created by black Americans in the early 20th century.
Legato
The notes are played or sung smoothly
Melismatic
Several notes sung to one syllable
Octave
The distance between a note and the nearest note with the same name
Ornament
Decorates a melody by adding extra notes
Pedal
A note which is held on or is repeated continuously in the bass beneath changing harmonies
basso continuo
continuous bass part, often with figures to indicate chords to be improvised on a harmony instrument
continuo
a bass line only, unsually played on bassoon, cello, double bass
contrapuntal
two or more parts weaved together as a musical texture (polyphonic)
diatonic
notes belonging to the scale of the key you are in
fugue
composition based on a melody, repeated in combination with rhythmically independent counter subject
ground bass
bass is repeated over and over whilst composition plays above
homophonic
musical texture which focuses on a single melody with accompaning harmonies (mainly chordal)
melisma
flourish of notes sung to a single syllable
monophonic
single melodic line without supporting harmonies
pedal
note that repeats against changing harmony
polyphonic
two or more parts weaved together as a musical texture (contrapuntal)
polyrhythmic
two or more different rhythms going along at the same time, strongly conflicting with each other
polytonality
use of two or more keys played simultaneously, may have a melody in one key and supporting harmonies in another
Aerophone
Any instrument that generates sound by vibrating a column of air
Alto
The lower, heavier female voice
Art Music
Music intended for careful attention to its sounds and expressive qualities
Bass
The lower, heavier male voice
Beat
The pulse or throb that recurs regularly in music
Cadence
A melodic or harmonic formula that gives a sense of phrase ending. In poetic usage, it sometimes refers to beat or tempo
Cadenza
A section in which a soloist plays a free paraphrase on the themes of the work
Call-and-Response
The form found in African music in which phrases of music are exchanged between soloist and group
Canon
Music in which one of more lines imitate one another for almost the entire work
Chord
The simultaneous sounding of three or more pitches
Chordophone
Any instrument that produces sound by vibrating strings
Classical Music
The popular term for Concert Music
Concert Music
Music created for the intellectual and psychological satisfaction it provides
Concerto
A multi-movement work consisting of music that contrasts a soloist with an orchestra or band
Consonance
A group of simultaneous sounds that seems agreeable or restful
Counterpoint Melody
Two of more independent lines with melodic character occurring at the same time
Crescendo
The music should gradually become louder
Decrescendo
The music should gradually become softer
Dissonance
A group of simultaneous sounds that seems disagreeable or harsh
Downbeat
The first beat of a measure
Dynamics
The amount of loudness in music
Form
The pattern or plan of a musical work
Harmony
The simultaneous sounds of several pitches, usually in accompanying a melody
Homophony
The texture consisting of a line of melody with accompaniment
Ideophone
A percussion instrument other than a drum
Imitation
The repetition of a theme in another part of line or a few beats later
Interval
The distance between two pitches
Key
Any of 24 major or minor diatonic scales that provide the tonal framework for a piece of music
Major Scale
A series of seven different pitches within an octave, with half steps between the third and fourth steps and the seventh and eighth steps
Measure
A group of beats marked as a separate unit in music
Melody
A series of consecutive pitches that form a cohesive musical entity
Membranophone
Any instrument that produces sounds from a skin or other membrane
Meter
The regular pattern of stressed and unstressed beats
Minor Scale
A series of seven pitches within an octave, with a half step between the second and third steps
Modulation
Changing the tonal center as the music progresses, usually without a break
Monophony
One melodic line without any accompaniment
Motive
A short musical idea that is a unifying element in a musical work
Movement
A large instrumental section of an instrumental composition
Mute
A device for muffling of dampening the sound of an instrument
Octave
A pitch that has twice or half the frequency of vibrations of another; usually the two pitches have the same letter designation
Phrase
A rather short, logical segment of music; it is comparable to a clause or phrase in language
Pitch
The perceived highness of lowness of a musical sound
Pizzicato
Notes on a string instrument that are played by the player's fingers plucking the string instead of using the bow
Polyphony
Music in which two or more melodic lines of approximately equal importance are sounded at the same time
Polyrhythm
Two or more rhythm patterns occurring simultaneously
Rhythm
The flow of music in terms of time
Scale
A series of pitches that proceeds upward of downward according to a prescribed pattern
Soprano
The higher, lighter female voice
Syncopation
The displacement of an accent so that it occurs where it is not normally expected or does not occur where it is expected
Tempo
The speed of the beats in a piece of music
Tenor
(1) The higher, lighter male voice. (2) The line in a medieval motet that contains the phrases from Gregorian Chant
Texture
The basic setting of the music: monophonic, homophonic, or polyphonic
Theme
A central melody in a musical work
Timbre
Tone quality or color in music
Time Signature
The two numbers, one above the other, at the beginning of a piece or section of a longer work that indicate its metrical pattern and how it is notated
Tonal Center
The specific pitch around which a piece of music is centered
Tonic Chord
A chord built on the first degree of a major or minor scale
Vibrato
Slight, rapid fluctuations of pitch
Wind Ensemble
An ensemble comprising wind and percussion instruments
accelerando
gradually faster
accent
play note louder w/ emphasis
adagio
slow
allegro
quickly / cheerfully
andante
moving along
crescendo
gradually louder
decresc
gradually softer
enharmonic notes
notes thatsound the same but have different names
fermata
hold the note longer than its normal value (approximately twice the normal duration)
forte
loud
fortissimo
very loud
largo
very slow
mezzo forte
moderately loud
mezzo piano
moderately soft
pianissimo
very soft
piano
soft
ritardando
gradually slower
sforzando
a sudden strong accent
staccato
play note short and detached
tenuto
hold the note for its full value
vivace
lively / fast
Anton Webern
1883-1945, texture, expressive textures, sparse textures, use of silence, brevity-strict serialism
Antonin Dvorák
1841-1904, Czech, strongly ifluenced by Smetana-moved to U.S., famous works include Slavonic Danses, Symphony no. 9
Arnold Schoenberg
1874-1951, Vienna then U.S., expressionism-Pierrot Lunaire-sprechstimme (spoken song)
Bedrich Smetana
1824-1884, Czech-Bohemia, built national theater in Prague, criticized for sounding too much like Liszt, The Moldau river, emphatic-Furiant from The Bartered Bride
Claude Debussy
Ballets Russes, Sergi Diaghilev, commissioned many composers, including French
Franz Schubert
1797-1828, viennese closee circle of artistic friends, over 600 songs, chamber music, piano pieces, symphonies-Gretchen am Spinnrade
Fryderyk Chopin
1810-1849, Rubato, solo piano pieces-mazurka, polonaise, impromtus, improvisatory in manner
Giuseppe Verdi
1813-1901, went from bottom to top from small opera houses to La Scala, Italian operatic tradition, worked with famous librettists-Otello
Gustav Mahler
1860-1911, Brahms' Viennese successor, conductor, radical ideas, symphony, big orchestra, unusual sounds for a concert hall
Hector Berlioz
1803-1869 studied composition at Paris conservatory, music critic, conductor, master of orchestration
Igor Stravinsky
1882-1971, Russian, settled in France then U.S., early collaboration with Diaghilev and Ballets Russes, large, romantic era orchestra, Russian themes, neo-classism, serialism-Firebird, Petrushka, Rite of Spring
Johannes Brahms
1833-1897, vienna, conservative center of music tradition, friend of Robert and Clara Schumann-Variations on Haydn
Lili Boulanger
1893-1918, child prodigy, Paris conservatory, Rome Prize-Psalm 24
Piotr Tchaichovsky
1840-1893, tragic life, studied with Balakiev but embraced European symphonic music, especially Mozart, famous pieces: Nutcracker Suite, Overture, six symphonies, violin concerto in D Major, Romeo and Juliet
Richard Wagner
1813-1883, opposed to traditional Italian opera, "music drama" (not drama), German Romantic Opera traditions, greater role for orchestra, supernatural plots, controversial writings about music and race, lietmotiv-Ring Cycle
Robert Schumann
1810-1856, master of lieder, solo piano, chamber music, orchestral music-Carnaval
Steve Reich
phasing-Come Out, Clapping Music
Vincenzo Bellini
1801-1835, master of bel canto opera, preferred serious/tragic plots, lyric intensity, vocal display (ornamentation), coloratura-Norma, Casta Diva
Antonio Vivaldi
Baroque 1678-1741
Clara Schumann
Romantic 1819-1896
Franz Peter Schubert
Classical 1797-1828
George Frederic Handel
Baroque 1685-1759
Jean-Baptiste Lully
Baroque 1632-1687
Johann Sebastian Bach
Baroque 1685-1750
Johannes Brahms
Romantic 1833-1897
Joseph Haydn
Classical 1732-1809
Ludwig Van Beethoven
Classical/Romantic 1770-1827
Piotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Romantic 1840-1893
Richard Wagner
Romantic 1813-1883
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Classical 1756-1791