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Civil Rights

Refers to the government-protected rights of individuals against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by governments or individuals based on categories such as race, sex, national origin, age, religion, or sexual orientation.

Thirteenth Amendment

1 of 3 Civil War Amendments. Specifically bans slavery in the US

Black Codes

Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the Civil War.

Fourteenth Amendment

1 of 3 Civil War Amendments. Guarantees equal protection and due process to all citizens.

Fifteenth Amendment

1 of 3 Civil War Amendments. Specifically allows voting to newly freed male slaves.

Jim Crow Laws

Laws enacted by southern states that discriminated against blacks by creating "whites only" public venues like schools, churches, theatres, hotels, etc.

Civil Rights Cases (1883)

Name given to 5 cases brought under the Civil Rights Acts of 1875. In 1883, the Supreme Court decided that discrimination in public venues couldn't be prohibited by the act because it was private discrimination, not state discrimination.

Poll Tax

A tax any eligible voter had to pay before they could cast their ballot. Passed in many southern states

Grandfather Clause

Voting qualification provision in many southern states that allowed only those whose grandfathers had voted before Reconstruction to vote unless they passed a wealth or literacy test.

Suffrage Movement

The drive for womens right to vote. took place between 1890-1920.

Ninetenth Amendment

Guaranteed womens right to vote

Equal Protection Clause

Section of the 14th Amendment that guarantees that all citizens recieve "equal protection of the laws."

Brown v. Board of Education (1954)

Supreme Court decision holding that school segregation was unconstitutional because it violated the 14th amendment's equal protection clause. Ended segregation in the U.S.

Muller v. Oregon (1908)

Case that ruled Oregon's law that barred women from working more than ten hours a day was constitutional. also an attempt to define women's unique status as mothers to justify differential treatment

Plessy v. Ferguson

Plessy challenged a Louisiana statue requiring railroads to have segregated cars. Court found that the separate but equal clause didn't violate then equal protection clause of the 14th amendment

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